Sunday 21st of December 2014

of shape, forms and fields...

a rose is a rose....

Shape, form, content (formula), fields, kinetics and the conservation of energy. picture by Gus leonisky.

I believe it is important for any artist to know about "value" of shape and form... Shape is usually seen on (or cut as) a flat surface. Form is considered to be three-dimensional. Formula becomes more the form of molecules at rest while chemical kinetics is the study of the various speed chemical reactions take place. Apart from explosions, one of the fastest chemical reaction is DNA complex duplication... All these factors are related in our our appreciation of artistic endeavours... this appreciation being part of chemical reactivity in our brain, in which habits are constructed to accept, reject or be shocked in a delta change of memory. there is no life without change. 

Shape and forms are defined by their boundary with space and time, which themselves have their own shape and form — even if these are un-shape and un-form of fields. 

There are discreet form differences also, for the same content, for example, some same chemical compounds can have different forms due to their origin —synthetic or natural or whatever. It is generally accepted that synthetic insulin works "as well as" naturally extracted insulin, yet it does not work for some patients who have "allergic" reactions to the synthetic insulin. The reason? The synthetic molecules though having identical formula to the natural insulin, may not have the exact same form. 

It is not uncommon for the same chemicals to have different forms, especially in the organic domain. Form can also define a complexity of multi-shaped item. The "form" and formula of living organisms change while being alive, but can also "evolve" according to environmental factors, including "adaptation" of viruses to potent antibiotics.


But at the source of form, there are criteria such as gravity, electromagnetic, strong and weak atomic forces and motion which influence the form of celestial bodies as well as the smallest of atom. We have idealised shape and forms, by mathematical constructs and by sheer acceptance of the beauty of their simplicity. The ultimate shape and form is the absence of any, which we idealise as the "point".

Some of the most basic shapes are the circle and the square, which can become sphere and cube when in three dimensions — the cube, for mathematical puristic construct being able to also be described as a sphere. 

Recently, as mentioned on this site, a humble mathematician solved the Poincarré riddle of proving say a glass of wine (empty) is a sphere. Amusing, but mathematically very powerful. 

Other typical forms include toroid (doughnut). This form cannot be "proven" to be a sphere... 

The importance of the toroid shape is often undervalued, apart from that of fluffy pastry dipped in hot cooking oil, and highly valued in some sciences such as Chaos Theory and Space/Time relationship in relativity.. 

Some forms such as that of atoms are "unscharf" (fuzzy boundary) though "sphere-like"...  
Presently some fascinating work is being done on "graphene". 

Carbon is one of the essential elements for life to occur and has many varied properties due to its electron configuration. Thus it can combine in various ways to itself and to other elements. In graphene, the carbon atoms combine as an atomic-thick sheet of hexagonal shapes with high-strength properties. Each atom is thus linked to three other carbon atom. This linkage is very stable and super-strong. Another super-strong linkage of carbon is CO2, but here the molecule is limited to one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen, while in graphene, the molecule of carbon can be endless. The edges of graphene would present an interesting conundrum but this for another time. (It is known that carbon atoms at the edge of graphene sheets have special chemical reactivity, and graphene has the highest ratio of edgy carbons — in comparison with similar materials such as carbon nanotubes). The form of carbon is fascinating as its crystals can be transparent such as in diamond or totally black such as in graphite.

Some nifty-research is presently done on double layers of graphene to "elucidate exotic broken-symmetry states". The symmetry of energy conservation is at the core of these experiments in the sense that they provide complex electronic states while under electromagnetic field. The added magnetic field creates an apparent break up of the symmetry, though the break-up only occurs with the added energy from the field.

Thus we have shape, form, content (formula), kinetics (including electron freedom) and conservation of energy in one. Exciting. 

On top of this breaking of "symmetry", graphene has an unexpectedly high opacity level. Imagine it's only one atom tick and it absorbs about 2.3 per cent of white light. 

Here is a challenge for you: Is there a use for double layers or triple layers of graphene in say solar panels, combined with the copper indium gallium selenide (CuInxGa1-xSe2 or CIGS), in which the energy of the sun is converted to electricity part thereof being used to create an electromagnetic field, encouraging more free electrons in the system, increasing the output of electricity x fold?

There would be a certain degradation of the graphene over time but could this be in a similar degradation gradient as that of solar panels, say 25 to 35 years?

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The double helix-form of DNA is specific enough though it has billion variations in its "balanced" content and flexibility leading to speciation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speciation)... In some way, the speciation that led to the development of homo sapiens, for me, characteristically contains "uncertain balanced possibilities" like those heavy atoms which only exist as islands in the sea of uncertainty in the table of elements... This uncertainty is still subject to the DNA strength and "balance in change", yet allows for the development of an array of "differently" looking individuals. No one looks the same (apart from twins et al) though there are similarities and genetic inheritance. 

Even our many breeds of pets retain some species traits and it's likely that should we mix the lot back together, the wolf would reappear in its entirety — unless we have the problem of the omelette from which we cannot recreate an egg. This iffy concept was the subject of my writing an Opera, in the early 1980s, based on the splitting of humanity into two major speciated groups — the rich and the poor, in which the genetic shift of each would eventually not allow interbreeding. 

This project never saw the light of day beyond a short synopsis, but I still keep it in the back of my mind. This concept of course was not new. This was also the general story-line of Romeo and Juliet under pressure from differentiated social history and to a point also shown in Avatar, the movie... In the Greek and Roman mythology, there are also such stories, including the story of Castor and Pollux, twins from the same mother but different fathers, leading to some interesting dynamics including immortality and death, and the desire to share.

In some religions, the ultimate shape of god cannot be seen nor described... Though most religions have defined a simplistic image in order to attract the gullible by visualisation — rather than by punishment or promises alone.

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The form and formulation of DNA also leads to some very specific appearance of species, including very elaborate decoration, which could appear superfluous to survival.  

Some chameleons can change colours according to "mood" and the peacock has plumage that is beyond the ridiculously beautiful... And there also lies in shape and form, the concept of beauty. All due to the construct of their DNA.

Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction. Back to this appreciation being part of chemical reactivity in our brain, in which habits are constructed to accept or be shocked in a delta change of memory. there is no life without change. 

And no god has anything to do with this. We should be wondered by being who we are and not try to rob each others, but robbery and deceit is part of life itself. We need to acquire proteins to survive. We need to consume to live. The process is changing relationships between shapes, forms and fields.

Should we "over-consume" in relation to our energy expenditure and waste, we change form: we become fat, obese, gross... Some people find beauty in this. I don't. But this is only my view. A bird that becomes too heavy cannot fly — that is, it cannot essentially be a bird anymore. 

Humans will never fly except in tin-cans, vaguely formed or shaped like birds, that "over-consume" the carbon energy supply on this planet.

Gus Leonisky
Your local mad artistic director...

 

of fields, boundaries and conservation of energy...

 

insurance

Noether's (first) theorem states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. The theorem was proved by German mathematician Emmy Noether in 1915 and published in 1918.[1] The action of a physical system is the integral over time of a Lagrangian function (which may or may not be an integral over space of a Lagrangian density function), from which the system's behavior can be determined by the principle of least action.

Noether's theorem has become a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics and the calculus of variations. A generalization of the seminal formulations on constants of motion in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (developed in 1788 and 1833, respectively), it does not apply to systems that cannot be modeled with a Lagrangian alone (e.g. systems with a Rayleigh dissipation function). In particular, dissipative systems with continuous symmetries need not have a corresponding conservation law.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noether%27s_theorem

 

 

castor and pollux — immortality and death...

 

 

In the top article I mention Castor and Pollux — in which the concept of immortality and death is basically held in the "genetics" of each of the "twins" fathers (one a god, the other a mortal). Now as we find ways to extend longevity, we can also extend the disparity and inequity between rich and poor... I was on this very subject in the early 1980s. 

 

From George Monbiot

Once it was a myth. Now it's a dream. And soon it will be an expectation. Suddenly the science of life extension is producing remarkable results. New papers hint at the possibility of treatments that could radically increase human longevity.

So much is happening that it's hard to know where to begin. But I'll pick just two of the gathering developments. The first concerns a class of enzymes called sirtuins. This month's Trends in Genetics states that the question of whether these enzymes could increase longevity in mammals "has now been settled decidedly in the affirmative".

Last month a new paper in the journal Aging Cell showed how synthetic small molecules (in other words, potential drugs) can stimulate the production of sirtuins in mice, extending their life span and improving their health. The results show, the paper says, that it's "possible to design a small molecule that can slow aging and delay multiple age-related diseases in mammals, supporting the therapeutic potential ... in humans".

The second development I've plucked from the tumult of extraordinary new science concerns an external hormone (a pheromone) secreted by nematode worms, called daumone. A new paper reports that when daumone is fed to elderly mice, it reduced the risk of death by 48% across five months. "Daumone could be developed as an anti-aging compound."

There are still plenty of missing steps, not least clinical trials and drug development, but there's a strong sense that we stand at an extraordinary moment. Who would not want this – to cheat the gods and mock the reaper? The benefits are so obvious that one recent article insists that political leaders who fail to provide sufficient funding for life-extension science should be charged with manslaughter. It's thrilling, dazzling, awe-inspiring. And rather alarming.

 

 read more: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jul/07/life-extension-dictators-ultra-rich-longevity-science

 

See article at top. A rose is a rose is a rose... (more than 100 species of roses plus hybrids)