Sunday 20th of September 2020

the 3rd nuclear bomb on japan...

rescript

Despite their military losses in the Pacifc, the Japanese commanders would not surrender. Two atomic bombs may not have been enough, and an ultimatum sent by Truman to the Japanese government was not enough…

After the bombs, the Russians went into Manchuria and prepared an invasion of Japan from the north. While the Emperor was in favor of surrendering, some Japanese generals were still prepared to fight to the death, though the Russian threat was becoming very quickly too real.

Another Japanese city had been targeted for the second Atomic bomb but the weather was bad so this bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Nagasaki had major armement factories and the bomb was dropped in the industrial corridor between two major armament factories… This is why there were far less “collateral damage” than in Hiroshima — another japanese war industrial complex — and only 45,000 people were killed.

Some of the Japanese military mutinied and some generals committed suicide, some were assassinated for wishing to surrender. The Prime Minister of Japan, an admiral was prepared to surrender, but a military commander took the palace of the Emperor, while the Japanese Emperor was living in the bunker below, not to come back to the “surface” till the early 1960s. 

Meanwhile President Truman pleaded with the Japanese government to surrender according to the Posdam accord that had made between the allies and Germany. The main sticking point in the surrender was the imposition of “democracy” to replace the Imperial governing system of Japan… The Truman plea was to make sure Japan knew about the possibility of a third Atomic bomb being exploded. But destroying Tokyo was not on the cards, because that would have deprived the allies of a Japanese negotiating team. 

The two possibility for dropping the third bomb were on Kokura — or on the north island to prevent the Russian invasion at the same time as forcing the surrender of Japan. Much of the Japanese military and atomic scientists thought the Americans were bluffing and did not have a third bomb. But it is most likely that Japanese intercepted secret American communications and knew that the third bomb was ready to go… It apparently was.


The city of Nagasaki in southern Japan marks the 75th anniversary of the U.S. atomic bombing on Sunday.

 

It was the second nuclear bomb dropped by the U.S. three days after the attack on Hiroshima. Japan surrendered on Aug. 15, ending World War II and nearly a half-century aggression against its Asian neighbors.

 

Dwindling survivors, whose average age exceeds 83, increasingly worry about passing their lessons on to younger generations.

 

Some questions and answers about that fateful event:

 

WHY WAS NAGASAKI CHOSEN AS THE TARGET?

 

Nagasaki was not a primary target. Although it was home to weapons production including torpedoes, its hilly topography and a nearby POW camp for Allies made Nagasaki less desirable. As the B-29 bomber Bockscar headed to its initial target of Kokura on the morning of Aug 9, 1945, thick haze and smoke forced it to switch at the last minute to Nagasaki, a second target. The United States said the bombings hastened Japan's surrender and prevented the need for a U.S. invasion of Japan. But some historians today note Japan was close to surrendering anyway and question the need to use atomic bombs, especially the second one. There is still debate about this in the U.S.

 

WHAT HAPPENED IN THE ATTACK?


Nagasaki's sky was also hazy, but visibility briefly cleared. At 11:02 a.m., the Bockscar dropped a 4.5-ton plutonium bomb dubbed “Fat Man” from 31,500 feet (9,600 meters). About 30 seconds later, the bomb exploded at 1,640 feet (500 meters) above a tennis court, hitting the mostly civilian district. Under the mushroom cloud that rose as high as 52,500 feet (16,000 meters), the blast destroyed about 70% of the city. Seconds later, the temperature at ground zero rose to 4,000 degrees Celsius (7,200 degrees Fahrenheit). All wooden houses within one kilometer of ground zero were destroyed by the blast and firestorm. About 20 minutes later, “black rain” of highly radioactive particles started falling onto the city, causing additional radiation exposure.

 

HOW MANY DIED?

 

An estimated 74,000 people, including those with radiation-related injuries and illnesses, died through Dec 31, 1945. That accounts for about one-third of the city’s population of about 240,000 before the attack. Those within one kilometer from ground zero were killed instantly. As in Hiroshima, most of the victims were civilians, including many children and elderly. To date, the death toll, including those who died subsequently from radiation-related cancers, totals 182,600. Nagasaki's population today is about 407,000.

 

WHAT ABOUT RADIATION?

 

Many of those exposed to radiation developed symptoms such as vomiting, hair loss and fatigue. Most of those with severe radiation symptoms died within weeks. Others who lived beyond that also developed health problems related to burns and radiation-induced cancers and other illnesses. Their risk of developing leukemia is 4-5 times higher than the general population. About 25,700 people in Nagasaki, who are certified as “hibakusha,” or atomic bombing survivors, are still alive and entitled to free medical checks and treatment. Government support for the survivors began only after their pressure led to the enactment of a law in 1957.


https://japantoday.com/category/national/q-a-nagasaki-marks-75th-a-bomb-...



Emperor of Japan declaration:

TO OUR GOOD AND LOYAL SUBJECTS,
After pondering deeply the general trends of the world and the actual conditions obtaining in our empire today, we have decided to effect a settlement of the present situation by resorting to an extraordinary measure.
We have ordered our government to communicate to the governments of the United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union that our empire accepts the provisions of their joint declaration.[8]
To strive for the common prosperity and happiness of all nations as well as the security and well-being of our subjects is the solemn obligation which has been handed down by our imperial ancestors and which lies close to our heart.
Indeed, we declared war on America and Britain out of our sincere desire to ensure Japan's self-preservation and the stabilization of East Asia, it being far from our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement.
But now the war has lasted for nearly four years. Despite the best that has been done by everyone – the gallant fighting of the military and naval forces, the diligence and assiduity of our servants of the state, and the devoted service of our one hundred million people – the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest.
Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.
Such being the case, how are we to save the millions of our subjects, or to atone ourselves before the hallowed spirits of our imperial ancestors? This is the reason why we have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the joint declaration of the powers.
We cannot but express the deepest sense of regret to our allied nations of East Asia, who have consistently cooperated with the Empire towards the emancipation of East Asia.
The thought of those officers and men as well as others who have fallen in the fields of battle, those who died at their posts of duty, or those who met with untimely death and all their bereaved families, pains our heart night and day.
The welfare of the wounded and the war-sufferers, and of those who have lost their homes and livelihood, are the objects of our profound solicitude.
The hardships and sufferings to which our nation is to be subjected hereafter will be certainly great. We are keenly aware of the inmost feelings of all of you, our subjects. However, it is according to the dictates of time and fate that We have resolved to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is unsufferable.Having been able to safeguard and maintain the Kokutai, We are always with you, our good and loyal subjects, relying upon your sincerity and integrity.
Beware most strictly of any outbursts of emotion which may engender needless complications, or any fraternal contention and strife which may create confusion, lead you astray and cause you to lose the confidence of the world.
Let the entire nation continue as one family from generation to generation, ever firm in its faith in the imperishability of its sacred land, and mindful of its heavy burden of responsibility, and of the long road before it.
Unite your total strength, to be devoted to construction for the future. Cultivate the ways of rectitude, foster nobility of spirit, and work with resolution – so that you may enhance the innate glory of the imperial state and keep pace with the progress of the world.

(Hirohito's signature and Privy Seal)

Tokyo, August 14, 1945

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewel_Voice_Broadcast

----------------------

Part of a radio broadcast by Truman on 9 August 1945, referring to the atomic bombing of Japan
(Courtesy of the Imperial War Museum ref 427/1)

"
The British, Chinese and United States governments have given the Japanese people adequate warning of what is in store for them. We have laid down the general terms on which they can surrender. Our warning went unheeded. Our terms were rejected.

Since then, the Japanese have seen what our atomic bomb can do. They can foresee what it will do in the future.

The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. That was because we wished in the first attack to avoid insofar as possible, the killing of civilians. But that attack is only a warning of things to come. If Japan does not surrender, bombs will have to be dropped on her war industries and unfortunately thousands of civilian lives will be lost. I urge Japanese civilians to leave industrial cities immediately and save themselves from destruction.

I realise the tragic significance of the atomic bomb. Its production and its use were not lightly undertaken by this government. But we knew that our enemies were on the search for it. We know now how close they were to finding it. And we knew the disaster which would come to this nation and to all peace-loving nations, to all civilisation, if they had found it first. That is why we felt compelled to undertake the long and uncertain and costly labour of discovery and production. We won the race of discovery against the Germans.

Having found the bomb, we have used it. We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Harbour, against those who have starved and beaten and executed American prisoners of war, against those who have abandoned all pretence of obeying international laws of warfare. We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war; in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans. We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan’s power to make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us. …"

——————————

For Truman, the choice whether or not to use the atomic bomb was the most difficult decision of his life.

First, an Allied demand for an immediate unconditional surrender was made to the leadership in Japan. Although the demand stated that refusal would result in total destruction, no mention of any new weapons of mass destruction was made. The Japanese military command rejected the request for unconditional surrender, but there were indications that a conditional surrender was possible.

Regardless, on August 6, 1945, a plane called the ENOLA GAY dropped an atomic bomb on the city of HIROSHIMA. Instantly, 70,000 Japanese citizens were vaporized. In the months and years that followed, an additional 100,000 perished from burns and radiation sickness.

Two days later, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. On August 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped on NAGASAKI, where 80,000 Japanese people perished.

On August 14, 1945, the Japanese surrendered.

Critics have charged that Truman's decision was a barbaric act that brought negative long-term consequences to the United States. A new age of nuclear terror led to a dangerous arms race.

Some military analysts insist that Japan was on its knees and the bombings were simply unnecessary. The American government was accused of racism on the grounds that such a device would never have been used against white civilians.

Other critics argued that American diplomats had ulterior motives. The Soviet Union had entered the war against Japan, and the atomic bomb could be read as a strong message for the Soviets to tread lightly. In this respect, Hiroshima and Nagasaki may have been the first shots of the Cold War as well as the final shots of World War II. Regardless, the United States remains the only nation in the world to have used a nuclear weapon on another nation.

Truman stated that his decision to drop the bomb was purely military. A Normandy-type amphibious landing would have cost an estimated million casualties. Truman believed that the bombs saved Japanese lives as well. Prolonging the war was not an option for the President. Over 3,500 Japanese kamikaze raids had already wrought great destruction and loss of American lives.

The President rejected a demonstration of the atomic bomb to the Japanese leadership. He knew there was no guarantee the Japanese would surrender if the test succeeded, and he felt that a failed demonstration would be worse than none at all. Even the scientific community failed to foresee the awful effects of RADIATION SICKNESS. Truman saw little difference between atomic bombing Hiroshima and FIRE BOMBING Dresden or Tokyo.

The ethical debate over the decision to drop the atomic bomb will never be resolved. The bombs did, however, bring an end to the most destructive war in history. The Manhattan Project that produced it demonstrated the possibility of how a nation's resources could be mobilized.

Pandora's box was now open. The question that came flying out was, "How will the world use its nuclear capability?" It is a question still being addressed on a daily basis.


https://www.ushistory.org/us/51g.asp

will the world use its nuclear capability?...

more to come

the black lancasters...

This is the story of the secret 'Black Lancasters', a specially trained RAF unit that was to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Why? Because the American B-29 Superfortress couldn't do it! Find out how this extraordinary situation arose and how the Americans managed to perform the mission in the end. Dr. Mark Felton is a well-known British historian, the author of 22 non-fiction books, including bestsellers 'Zero Night' and 'Castle of the Eagles', both currently being developed into movies in Hollywood. In addition to writing, Mark also appears regularly in television documentaries around the world, including on The History Channel, Netflix, National Geographic, Quest, American Heroes Channel and RMC Decouverte. His books have formed the background to several TV and radio documentaries.

 

Read more see more:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XX9ptCNpik

the fear of war driving peace...

 

VOLTAIRE NETWORK | ROME (ITALY) | 16 MAY 2017

The US Generals: “the Bomb for Peace”

by Manlio Dinucci

Making mischief while confusion reigns…. Thus two US generals assure us that it was the Atomic Bomb that saved the world and preserved peace after the Second World War. From Korea in the 1950s to the Arab World in its current form, it will be for the victims of imperialism to evaluate this. But Truth’s narrative is quite different. What is Bomb has engineered is a situation where a few states maintain their domination over a world they are ready to blow up.


Just two days before the North Korean missile test set off the nuclear alarm across the world, the journal, Politico, featured an article entitled “Why the USA is right to invest in nuclear weapons” [1]. The article was not authored by a pundit, but two generals, the controlling minds behind three quarters of the US nuclear forces: Dave Goldfein, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and Robin Rand, Head of the Air Command for Global Attack.

They declare that, “though it may seen counterintuitive, nuclear weapons are a critical tool for global peace”. They think that this is demonstrated by the fact that, since the advent of the nuclear age, great wars have stopped. They claim that it is therefore essential to keep our bombings and nuclear missiles at optimal efficiency.

Today, the United States must proceed to upgrade its nuclear forces since it is faced with: 
“potential enemies that are aggressively modernizing and expanding their nuclear forces and increasingly wanting to assert themselves”. 
The Generals cite “the explicit threats of North Korea”; yet it is clear what they are really referring to: Russia and China. Thus they warn in a menacing tone: 
“Our potential enemies have to know that our nation’s leadership will always take tough decisions, necessary to protect and to ensure the survival of the American people and its allies”. 
In other words, it is ready to fight a Third World War, a nuclear one, which noone, in actual fact, would manage to survive. So they throw back a dogmatic request to the Trump Administration: 
“The United States must maintain its commitment to recapitalizing our nuclear forces”.

The commitment to which they are referring was not taken by that “barbarian at the gate”, Donald Trump, but by the dove-like Obama, who was mantled with a Nobel Prize for Peace in 2009 for his “vision of a world free of nuclear weapons and the work he carried out to reach this goal”. It was the Obama Administration that launched the biggest programme for nuclear re-armament at the end of the Cold War. The cost? Just around 1,000 billion dollars, which covers the construction costs of 12 new submarines for nuclear attack (each with 24 missiles capable of launching up to almost 200 nuclear heads), another 100 strategic bombers (each armed with around 20 missiles or nuclear bombs) and 400 intercontinental ballistic missiles with a land base (each with a powerful nuclear head).

Thus at the same time, the modernization of the current nuclear forces was launched with revolutionary technology, that Hans Kristensen of the Federation of American Scientists reports in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists [2]: “triples the destructive power of the existing US ballistic missiles”, as if they were being planned to have the “capacity to fight and win a nuclear war disarming the enemies with a surprise first attack”.

Capacity which also includes an “anti-missile shield” to neutralize an enemy reprisal, such as the one the US is lining up in Europe against Russia, and South Korea against China. Consequently it is accelerating the race to nuclear weapons. Significant is the Russian decision to line up in 2018 a new inter- continental ballistic missile, the RS-28 Sarmat, with a range of up to 18,000 km, capable of transporting 10-15 nuclear heads that, falling into the atmosphere at hypersonic speed (more than 10 times the speed of sound), can manoeuvre to escape intercepting missiles, piercing the “shield”.

However, we can fall into a restful slumber, blindly confident that “nuclear weapons are a critical tool of world peace.”

Manlio DinucciTranslation 
Anoosha Boralessa
Source
Il Manifesto (Italy)

 

 

Read more:

https://www.voltairenet.org/article196365.html

 

 

See also: 

from victory via becoming rust at the bottom, with the sad loss of lives, to MAD...

 

and:

WAR...