Sunday 19th of September 2021

gus's fuse box explodes... sorry...

electricity

We need to expose the cretin-intentionists (oops, I meant to say the creationists) when they are pontificating about "scientifically" understanding these modern times…



There are far too many religious young (and old) guys and dolls who still believe that Eve and Adam were the first humans on Planet Paradise. According to the tired myth, one of these idiots, under the spell of the devil/snake made both eat the forbidden apple and they became originally sinful. Silly? Sure. 

So Eve's and Adam's godly privileges on the planet were revoked. They and their descendants had to get redemption from an all loving god, the wrath of whom is to be feared forever after, nonetheless. Apparently, redemption came later on in the form of a guy who got nailed to a cross and asked them to “believe” in him… Yes, believe what you will, but please leave sciences (and the screwed art of politics) alone… 

Presently, for many of these religious nuts, redemption is to burn fossil fuels because this provides electricity at a cheaper price, while they can cultivate more turnips to turn this wild planet back into an Edenised garden under His (god is a male) supervision… Please go away.

Because relative sciences have explained earthly things a bit better, the creationists have had to adapt their wonky delusions to re-convince themselves, and to lure some more idiots out-there for support, that they still are the controllers of ultimate absolute knowledge.

We could let them hang themselves with their new stupid narrative, but they are still too clever with weaselly impressive words that twist reality into their major deceiving stupidity — like a fake and contradictory extrapolation of observation — including pseudo-scientific untruths that many unsuspecting gullible sufferers would swallow like lizards catch the sun… When these clever monkeys try to mix the domain of scientific rigour that explains global warming and of other problems such as the "problema etiam multi ex Planeta” — with their gospelly delusions, to carry on with the godly-inspired damage — one needs to wear a full Covid-proof suit of armour to avoid this crappy intellectual infection.

Take for example this young upstart, Vijay Jayaraj, who chastises the pope for warning us about our impending destruction of the planet. According to the pope we are carelessly destroying the place... Yes, I know the pope isn’t a "scientifical” (though "pontifical") reference to follow on reality, but at least he has had the sense of humour to send off the dead cats and dogs of little kiddies to paradise… For this old wise owl in his golden cage in Rome, it’s a bit as if everything we dearly love has to go holus bolus to the promise land — while the unloved rest (especially atheists like Gus) ends down the pits of Helldom or worse: in Oblivion-city. Dante was a satirist.

So the young learned Vijay, an Op-Ed contributor at CP (the Christian Post) — a gross refuge for many of the believing idiotic nice crap-pots (I meant nice cracked-pots or was it crackpots?) — many of whom have sinned with the “flesh” (read: had extra-marital sexual affairs, let’s blame the devil for the temptation contrary to their beliefs, as they ask us to pray for their redemption while still collecting bullions from preaching the gospel) — tells us with an unflinching confidence, that he knows BETTER than the pope about environmental reality:

Pope Francis’ 'creation groaning' letter: Biblically and scientifically bankrupt


In a letter marking the World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation, Pope Francis laments the destruction of nature.


“Our constant demand for growth and an endless cycle of production and consumption are exhausting the natural world,” he says. “Forests are leached, topsoil erodes, fields fail, deserts advance, seas acidify and storms intensify. Creation is groaning!”


But Francis thinks COVID-19 and the associated economic lockdowns are restoring nature: “Already we can see how the Earth can recover if we allow it to rest: the air becomes cleaner, the waters clearer, and animals have returned to many places from where they had previously disappeared.”


Sadly, as with the famous — or infamous — Laudato Si’ in 2015, this Papal letter is filled with errors.



It blames population growth and economic development for destroying nature. But didn’t God command humans to populate and control the earth?

“Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it,” God told Adam and Eve in Genesis 1:28. “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food,”  He said in Genesis 1:29.

Forget the rest. It gets worse... So the creationists like Vijay have an opinion based on nothing much else but the "good book" in which one of the stories tells us about Noah getting pissed after a hell of a flood — a flood designed by god Himself (god is a male) to eradicate the human vermin that did not believe in Him (god is still a male). In that said book, there are also a lot of narrative and itemised dictums in which god tells his troops of “chosen people" to go and wage war against such and such non-believers, and should you not believe hard enough you will loose Waterloo… So from time to time the “chosen people” take a dive, because they prefer gold to god. Who would not?

But god has a twisted sense of humour — and should the chosen people believe hard enough "in their hearts", they still lose their pants. Meanwhile some (male) kings are lucky enough to collect as many as 300 wives and 400 trophy concubines (read whores or bits on the side) — all with the godly stamp of approval. Extra-marital affairs? All good!... 

“...and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food…” 
Fuck this. Many seeds and fruit are poisonous. Behold, young Vijay, you are an idiot.

We cannot let spinners of falsities like Vijay, get away with their delicately religious bullshit that compromises sciences. They know nothing. They believe a lot with an absurd common sense. 

Oh, an "absurd common sense"? It’s something that is totally devoid of sense but commonly uses grandiloquent words like stewardshit (sorry I meant to say "stewardship") and "ministry" — a big world that self-inflate the believer to sainthood, when used in a religious context. When these morons (sorry, please accept my ungrovelling apologies for being rude) introduce their scientifically distorted beliefs, we should run for the bomb shelters against their blind hypocritical looniness. 

To sound modern, often the evangelicals nonsensically juxtapose words they have no idea about the conflicting meanings thereof, like “theological and anthropological” in the same breath… Sounds knowledgeable, but one word is of a belief while the other is of a science that has nothing to do with god and his minions, but relies on the changing evolution of humanity. Of course, creationists reject “evolution” like a greasy salmon. 

Our ancestors were little monkeys. and before this, fishes... This is what scientific reality is. DNA. Environmental stewardship? Come on! Yes we know that the bible fantasy called for "humans to be fruitful, to bring forth good things from the earth, to join with god in making provision for their temporal well being, and to enhance the beauty and fruitfulness of the rest of the earth".

Lovely but this has NOTHING to do with preserving the environment for other creatures who have as much rights to survive as we do, nor about modifying the atmosphere with burning fossil fuel because the electricity is cheaper — which it is not, considering, for example, the damage global warming is doing to California and the rest of the east coast of the USA.

Excess CO2 from human endeavours is on the way to create a massive atmospheric problem. But we know that creationists don't believe in global warming, because it's not in the bible — but they believe in electricity because it's convenient...

So oh god! Please! Help me! Make them suffer! Twist their nipples in their sleep! We cannot let these idiots get away with stealing and crushing sciences into your stinking beliefs, while trying to sound cultivated and knowledgeable. They are pitifully pissy and their improper deceit is inhuman...

Sciences and religions don’t mix.

Gus Leonisky
Atheist in Residence of the Downunder Quantumic Grand Lodge.

See also: the political game...

a warning from sir david...

Sir David Attenborough returns to our screens this weekend with a landmark new production.

The tone of the programme is very different from his usual work.

For once Britain's favourite naturalist is not here to celebrate the incredible diversity of life on Earth but to issue us all with a stark warning. 

The one-hour film, Extinction: The Facts, will be broadcast on BBC One in the UK on Sunday 13 September at 20:00 BST. 

"We are facing a crisis", he warns at the start, "and one that has consequences for us all."

What follows is a shocking reckoning of the damage our species has wrought on the natural world. 

Scenes of destruction

There are the stunning images of animals and plants you would expect from an Attenborough production, but also horrific scenes of destruction. 

In one sequence monkeys leap from trees into a river to escape a huge fire.

In another a koala limps across a road in its vain search for shelter as flames consume the forest around it.

Of the estimated eight million species on Earth, a million are now threatened with extinction, one expert warns.

Since 1970, vertebrate animals - birds, mammals, reptiles, fish and amphibians - have declined by 60%, another tells us.

We meet the world's last two northern white rhinos.

These great beasts used to be found in their thousands in Central Africa but have been pushed to the brink of extinction by habitat loss and hunting. 

"Many people think of extinction being this imaginary tale told by conservationists," says James Mwenda, the keeper who looks after them, "but I have lived it, I know what it is."

 

Read more:

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-54118769

 

Unfortunately we have to fight the creationists on this front. I suppose we have to humiliate them with their own delusions, because they are loony — dangerously loony. Read from top. 

the stewardship of the devil...

It’s not a question of fighting fire with fire or of using water to extinguish a fire. It’s making the idiots boil with their own rage so they vanish or self destruct in shame, but they won’t because they have the devil on their side…



What's this about? Well, how do you fight entrenched decided ignorance of facts, by presenting facts? You cannot. Creationists have decided that sciences are wrong and will be wrong. So you need to contain their silly views with rabid rudeness, set their arse on fire — and make sure no other devil joins them in the bonfire.

Despite claiming to be from god inspire “stewardship”, the creationists are born from the devil of total disregard for evidence.

Take this mob for example who dare say: 

Refuting climate alarmists’ counterfactual claims is like playing whack-a-mole. Smack this one here, and ten others pop up there, and there, and there, and ….


In the climate apocalyptic video propaganda category, the newest seems to be 
The Final Years of Majuro, posted to YouTube August 4.


The film tells us, with all the authority of “science,” that the Marshall Islands (of which Majuro is the capital city), will disappear if global average temperature (GAT) rises beyond 1.5°C above pre-industrial times.


Since this is a claim about the future, it cannot, of course, be the finding of empirical observation—the essence of science.


This is grand bullshit with a massive dash of crap for what sciences stand for. As Brecht said: 

The aim of science is not to open the door to infinite wisdom, but to set a limit to infinite error…

What the creationists are doing is giving the denialist scientists — those on the payroll of big business and fossil fuel industries — a bad name, by promoting the same bullshit — the sold-out scientists doing it for profit, and the denialists for love of the infinite error (and some cash as well). 

My guess would be that the creationists are inspired by Belzebuth on a good day. On a bad day, your anger should twice that of mine… The devil in the mind of creationists is viciously twisted that way…

Please note that science CAN MAKE CLAIMS ON THE FUTURE. This HAS BEEN the essence of scientific knowledge — otherwise your mobile phone (cell phone) would not work, not now nor tomorrow, though it might have worked yesterday as a piece of sandalwood. Empirical evidence is not about refusing to see the future. Scientific empirical evidence is about knowing that something you have observed and calculated WILL BE OBSERVED AND CALCULATED IN THE SAME WAY — IN THE FUTURE. This is science.

Of course there will be refinements in the scientific prediction of a study on a large scale such as global warming. And as acknowledged by these unlimited idiots: 

It’s already widely known that climate models grossly exaggerate the warming effect of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Indeed, the newest ones, which one might have thought would have been improved after spending hundreds of millions of dollars on them, actually do worse than the last ones.

Yes! The new more accurate scientific models do worse predictions than the previous ones. The original models were restrained, erring on the conservative side — though alarming, as mentioned many times on this site — in order to minimise the political panic and give time for human adaptation to the dire prospect.

These devil-monkey creationists will also quote from disproved denialists, scientists who themselves are in the pockets of fossil fuels companies. For example, they will mention:

But ten years ago, Cliff Ollier, of the School of Earth and Environment at the University of Western Australia, one of the world’s leading scholars on sea level and its effect on low-lying islands, published “Sea Level in the Southwest Pacific is Stable.” Examination of tide gauges found that “any rise of global sea level is negligible.” Further, Ollier found that the prevailing theory of how sea-level rise would affect coral atolls “would suggest that we should see more land subsidence, and apparent sea level rise, than is actually occurring.”

According to the International Climate Science Coalition (a full-blown denialist outfit working in tandem with the fossil fuel clowns), Cliff Ollier is a geologist, geomorphologist, soil scientist, emeritus professor, and honorary research fellow of the School of Earth and Geographical Sciences University of Western Australia.


Ollier has written articles for the Lavoisier Group (an organisation with close ties to the Australian mining industry). He is also on a scientific advisory panel to the Australian Climate Science Coalition (ACSC), another denialist outfit.



Fuck! Poor students who have had to learn stuff under his emerituses… Sorry… Ah yes, they have all gone to work for the mining industry or such...

For example Ollier has written:

As the world has been getting cooler since 1998 the global warming alarmists have to scare us with other things. A favourite is rising sea level, allegedly caused by rapid melting of the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland.


For example, a prepared statement by Barrie Pittock and Andrew Glikson claims that “New studies … indicate the Greenland and west Antarctica ice caps would, if atmospheric CO2-equivalent concentrations reached 450 ppm, very likely melt rapidly, raising sea-level on the scale of metres per century”
.

Wrong! Collier is a trapeze artist with no conscience as the general observation has been that the last five years 2015-2020 have been the warmest five on record, and that melting of the ice caps is well on the way — and so far CO2-equivalent concentrations have "only” reached 420 ppm. 30 small ppm can tip the balance quickly.

The expert on sea level rise is Anny Cazenave, as explained in the heartland institute preaches fiction to headless fictional chairs and a few balding men...

As well Collier wrote more bullshit:

The global warming doomsday writers claim the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are melting catastrophically, and will cause a sudden rise in sea level of 5 or more metres. This ignores the mechanism of glacier flow which is by creep.

This is crap scepticism from a man with degrees in sciences and we expect better bullshit than this. We know that not only there is glacier creep that is accelerating, there is also surface melt and under-glacial melt that are speeding up the process. Please read the Antarctic Conundrum.

So the creationist devils conclude:

So, residents of Majuro, and the rest of the Marshall Islands, and of Tuvalu and Kiribati and the Maldives and other poster children of climate alarmists’ sea-level rise scare, you can breathe easier. The final years for your islands are not imminent.

Should you be living on Tuvalu, you might find this statement a bit disingenuous and preventing you to become a climate-change refugee. Rising sea level don’t happen overnight and, like the people who live on the edge of the sea in Australia, your kitchen will get flooded from time to time and your swimming pool will float away on the swirls of a bad storm. 

And will this get worse? Sure. Some people discretely think that the "new normal" brought by Covid-19 was an artificially induced way to reduce our general consumption which was going through the roof despite our moribund general world economy propped up by ever growing debt. It’s not. That the virus killed-off the tourism industry and many other source of employment was just coincidental. The sad part is that most of the arts and many restaurants were the first to die in the “lockdowns”. 

Meanwhile global warming is creeping upwards — as calculated with far more precision now that in the 1980s… The prognostic — the scientific global warming claim on the future — isn’t good. The creationists — these poxes on the surface of the planet — should leave sciences alone or die of shame as their souls have been sold to the devil. 


GL.


Read from top.

breaking the ice...

A big chunk of ice has just broken away from the Arctic's largest remaining ice shelf - 79N, or Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden - in north-east Greenland.

The ejected section covers about 110 square km; satellite imagery shows it to have shattered into many small pieces. 

The loss is further evidence say scientists of the rapid climate changes taking place in Greenland.

"The atmosphere in this region has warmed by about 3C since 1980," said Dr Jenny Turton. 

"And in 2019 and 2020, it saw record summer temperatures," the polar researcher at Friedrich-Alexander University in Germany told BBC News.

Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden is roughly 80km long by 20km wide and is the floating front end of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream - where it flows off the land into the ocean to become buoyant. 

At its leading edge, the 79N glacier splits in two, with a minor offshoot turning directly north. It's this offshoot, or tributary, called Spalte Glacier, that has now disintegrated.



Read more:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-54127279

Read from top

Read also: http://yourdemocracy.net.au/drupal/node/26175

fire and money...

SAN FRANCISCO — Across a hellish landscape of smoke and ash, authorities in Oregon, California and Washington State battled to contain mega-wildfires on Sunday as shifting winds threatened to accelerate blazes that have burned an unimaginable swath of land across the West.


The arrival of the stronger winds on Sunday tested the resolve of fire crews already exhausted by weeks of combating blazes that have consumed around 5 million acres of desiccated forests, incinerated numerous communities and created what in many places was measured as the worst air quality on the planet.


“There’s just so much fire,” said Ryan Walbrun, a fire weather meteorologist with the National Weather Service. “And so much smoke.”


The fires, which have killed at least 24 people in the last week alone, have engulfed the region in anguish and fear, as fairgrounds have turned into refugee camps for many who have been forced from their homes. The choking smoke cast a dark pall over the skies and created a vision of climate-change disaster that made worst-case scenarios for the future a terrifying reality for the present.

“I drove 600 miles up and down the state, and I never escaped the smoke,” Senator Jeff Merkley, Democrat of Oregon, said Sunday on the television program, “This Week.” “We have thousands of people who have lost their homes. I could have never envisioned this.

 

 

Read more:

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/13/us/Wildfires-Oregon-California-Washington.html

 

 

Meanwhile:

 

A group representing investors that collectively manage more than US$47tn in assets has demanded the world’s biggest corporate polluters back strategies to reach net-zero emissions and promised to hold them to public account.

Climate Action 100+, an initiative supported by 518 institutional investor organisations across the globe, has written to 161 fossil fuel, mining, transport and other big-emitting companies to set 30 climate measures and targets against which they will be analysed in a report to be released early next year.

It is the latest step in a campaign by climate-concerned shareholders to force business leaders to explain how their targets and strategies will help reach the goals of the 2015 Paris agreement.

 

Read more:

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/sep/14/investors-worth-us47tn-demand-worlds-biggest-polluters-back-plan-for-net-zero-emissions

 

 

Read from top

 

sally floods alabama and florida...

Scientists know that climate change has made hurricanes wetter, because as the atmosphere warms it can hold more moisture. But there is evidence that it can make them slow down, too, enabling the storms to pelt land with heavy rains and winds for longer.

Studies by Michael E. Mann, a climate scientist at Penn State, and others suggest that increased Arctic warmth reduces the temperature differential between that region and the tropics. This leads to a slowing of the jet stream, which affects other circulation patterns in the tropics but also in mid-latitude areas like North America.

“Our work indicates that climate change is favoring this phenomenon,” Dr. Mann wrote in an email message. “It likely plays a role in the decreased translation speed of landfalling hurricanes.”

Though conservative media and President Trump have disputed any suggestion that climate change is a factor in the West Coast wildfires, scientists have identified it as a primary cause. The results of climate change could cause millions to become displaced, reshaping America.

 

Read more:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-54183485

 

 

And in regard to the idiots creationists at top, the corals in Kiribati and other places might have trouble growing upwards, if they are bleached by the rising temperatures of the oceans, under global warming conditions... 

going against the natural trend...

Climate on planet earth has changed many times from hot to cold back to warm and life has been resilient enough to adapt. Some species became more prominent, while some disappeared. So what is different with the present global warming which to a great extend is so far quite ridiculously minuscule compared to some of the previous climate changes? 



The first thing we have to realise, is that the present global warming is going against the natural trend. That is to say that according to the main scientific indicators, we should be slowly going towards a cooling of the planet surface, but we're not.



Our attitude towards this contrary trend could be :

— existentialist: Que sera sera…

— industrialist: our comfort in burning fossil fuels outweigh the small inconveniences of the change

— religious: god will take care of us

— denialistic: it’s not happening

— ignorant: d’oh?

— scientific: the present measured small increase in atmospheric temperature for the last few years (1.1 degree Celsius since the beginning of the "industrial revolution" — now on the way to hit 3.0 degrees Celsius minimum by 2100), mostly due to anthropogenic CO2, contrarily to the natural trend, could (will) lead to a few problems such as extinction of species when coupled with loss of habitats as well as rising sea level that will flood costal cities. As seen recently, storms are likely to become more severe and more frequent. At what point, will the plusses of human civilisation be counterbalanced by a major climatic upheaval? Is a major climatic-upending on the cards? Where are the critical points? What is the rate of change?

This is where, many studies have been made of past periods, of eons and eras to give us clues about what we could face in the future, sometimes without warning.

We know about the relationship between the extinction of the dinosaurs and a massive bolide that hit Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. This actually led to the evolution of the mammals which prior to this incident had been limited to small animals. Could we suggest that had this meteor not hit planet earth, we would not be here to consider this tiny problem — and this sidereal body that travels around the sun would still be populated by big beasts?

Studies of little clues can give us insight into what could be in store, as events on the surface of the earth can QUICKLY change the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.

Thus we should pay serious attention:


The end of the Devonian period, 359 million years ago, was an eventful time: Fish were inching out of the ocean, and fernlike forests were advancing on land. The world was recovering from a mass extinction 12 million years earlier, but the climate was still chaotic, swinging between hothouse conditions and freezes so deep that glaciers formed in the tropics. And then, just as the planet was warming from one of these ice ages, another extinction struck, seemingly without reason. Now, spores from fernlike plants, preserved in ancient lake sediments from eastern Greenland, suggest a culprit: The planet's protective ozone layer was suddenly stripped away, exposing surface life to a blast of mutation-causing ultraviolet (UV) radiation.


Just as the extinction set in, the spores became misshapen and dark, indicating DNA damage, John Marshall, a palynologist at the University of Southampton, and his co-authors say in a paper published this week in Science Advances. It's evidence, he says, that “all of the ozone protection is gone.”


Scientists have long believed—at least before humanity became a force for extinction—that there were just two ways to wipe out life on Earth: an asteroid strike or massive volcanic eruptions. But 2 years ago, researchers found evidence that in Earth's worst extinction—the end-Permian, 252 million years ago—volcanoes lofted Siberian salt deposits into the stratosphere, where they might have fed chemical reactions that obliterated the ozone layer and sterilized whole forests. Now, spores from the end-Devonian make a compelling case that, even without eruptions, a warming climate can deplete the ozone layer, says Lauren Sallan, a paleobiologist at the University of Pennsylvania. “Because the evidence is so strong, it will make people rethink other mass extinction events.”


The end-Devonian die-off has long sat in the shadow of the Late Devonian extinction 12 million years earlier, one of the planet's largest. Likely driven by volcanoes that emitted gases that drastically cooled and warmed the planet, it killed most corals and many shelled sea creatures. But 10 years ago, work by Sallan and others revealed the end-Devonian was mighty in its own right, wiping out many plants and vertebrates, including most tetrapods, the four-limbed fish that had begun to evolve fingers and toes. Only the five-toed tetrapods survived. “It resets our own evolution,” Marshall says. “All these archaic lineages, it kicked them out of the frame.”


What the end-Devonian lacked was a cause. There was no evidence for volcanism or a giant impact, but one alluring clue was seen in the rapid formation and disappearance of rock deposits associated with glaciers, Sallan says. “Something was really screwed up with climate at that time.”


Over the past 3 decades, Marshall has explored rocks surviving from this time in eastern Greenland. At the time, this terrain lay far from the arctic, at lower latitudes, locked in the arid interior of a landmass called the Old Red Sandstone Continent. As the climate warmed after the Devonian's last ice age, lakes formed and filled with sediment that slowly turned to mudstone, recording conditions before and during the extinction. In 2017, Marshall exhumed the perfect mudstone in a 6-meter-long drilled core.


It captures a startling transformation: Healthy fossilized spores, coated in distinctive symmetrical spikes, suddenly grow misshapen, their spikes dilapidated and uneven. Spores are a common fossil because of their armored coat, but they are vulnerable to UV radiation, much like humans; spores can even develop a “tan” in response to UV. The damage Marshall saw is consistent with such exposure, says Jeffrey Benca, an experimental paleobotanist who has linked such damage to the end-Permian extinction. “What they propose seems quite plausible,” he says.


Marshall argues that the warming climate drove more powerful summer thunderstorms, which could have injected an ozone-depleting mix of water and salts into the stratosphere. As UV rays killed off forests, nutrient runoff into the sea could have caused blooms of plankton and algae, which would have produced more ozone-destroying salts in a runaway feedback. “It looks like it might be a perfect storm,” he says.


Marshall's scenario could explain not just the extinction, but also the many natural gas deposits dating from the period, says Sarah Carmichael, a geochemist at Appalachian State University. They formed from decaying organic matter, but no one has explained the needed surge in plankton growth. Nutrient runoff from dead forests could have fertilized the marine life.


It's also a portent of what could happen in today's warming world, where more powerful thunderstorms sometimes “overshoot” the troposphere and inject moisture into the dry, cold stratosphere. When combined with aerosol particles and chlorine molecules, the moisture may eat away ozone (Science, 26 April 2019, p. 322).


But atmospheric scientists can barely agree on whether these ozone depletions are happening now, let alone hundreds of millions of years ago. More overshoots occur now than expected, but whether they are spurring damaging reactions is not yet clear. Elliot Atlas, an atmospheric chemist at the University of Miami who studies this dynamic, is skeptical of Marshall's theory. It needs much more rigorous testing in models, he says. “Is it impossible? I can't say that.”


Carmichael, for her part, would like to see evidence beyond the pollen grains that UV drove the extinction. “I'm wary of saying UV radiation is the reason,” she says. “But I think it's a reason.”



Source:

UV radiation blamed in ancient mass extinction
By Paul Voosen
Science  29 May 2020:
Vol. 368, Issue 6494, pp. 926


Read from top.