Tuesday 29th of November 2022

"weapons of mass destruction" disinformation all over again…. the empire bullshits more in many languages….

Declassified Australia’s Peter Cronau flags and analyzes a report by researchers at Stanford University and Graphika about a massive secret propaganda operation being run out of the U.S.  The report, from late August, has been buried by the Western media.

A covert online propaganda operation said to be the world’s largest promoting “pro-Western narratives” has been found to be operating primarily out of the United States, targeting Russia, China and Iran.


By Peter Cronau
Declassified Australia



“We believe this activity represents the most extensive case of covert pro-Western IO [Information Operation] on social media to be reviewed and analysed by open-source researchers to date,” say the researchers from Stanford University and internet research firm, Graphika.

The researchers found most of the Information Operation “likely originated in the United States.” From there it ran a massive, interconnected web of automated “bot” accounts on Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms.

The covert operation to influence online audiences has been using “deceptive tactics to promote pro-Western narratives,” while “opposing countries including Russia, China and Iran.”

“The accounts heavily criticized Russia in particular for the deaths of innocent civilians and other atrocities its soldiers committed in pursuit of the Kremlin’s ‘imperial ambitions’ following its invasion of Ukraine in February this year,” the report says.

Declassified Australia is publishing here the first detailed analysis of the remarkable report by Stanford University’s Internet Observatory (SIO) and network analysis firm Graphika, released on Aug. 24.

This report is all the more surprising because SIO and Graphika have deep connections to the U.S. national security state and to information campaigns against U.S.-designated enemies Russia, China and Iran.

SIO’s director, Alex Stamos, for example, is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a visiting scholar at the Hoover Institute and on the advisory board of NATO’s Collective Cybersecurity Center of Excellence. He was chief security officer at Facebook where he led the company’s investigation into alleged Russian manipulation of the 2016 U.S. election.

Graphika’s director of investigations, Ben Nimmo, is a senior fellow with the Atlantic Council, was a consultant to the U.K.’s Integrity Initiative propaganda unit, previously worked as press officer for NATO and is now intelligence chief at Meta (which owns Facebook and Instagram). There he produced a report that attempted to link Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn to a Russian influence operation prior to the 2019 U.K. general election.

Ironically titled “Unheard Voice: Evaluating five years of pro-Western covert influence operations,” the report has been studiously ignored by almost all in the Western establishment media since its release last month. Despite the scale and targeting of the propaganda operation, the spectacular revelations have received only scant attention like this slight mention in The Sydney Morning Herald.

A light-hearted column in The Washington Post referred to it as a “splashy report,” saying some of the covert U.S. accounts had posted “cat pictures” in order to appear authentic. The column references Russian and Chinese cyber-espionage operations in framing its remarks about the report.


Part of the reason the report has been effectively buried may be because it was conveniently overshadowed on the very same day of its release by another Stanford Internet Observatory release titled, “A Front for Influence: An Analysis of a Pro-Kremlin Network Promoting Narratives on COVID-19 and Ukraine.”


Massive Twitter-Meta Dataset

The data analysed by Stanford-Graphika came after Twitter and Meta/Facebook in July and August removed two overlapping sets of fake accounts for violating their terms of service. The datasets appear to cover a series of covert campaigns over a period of almost five years rather than one homogeneous operation.

The Twitter dataset covered 299,566 tweets by 146 accounts, while the Meta dataset focussed on 39 Facebook profiles and 26 Instagram accounts. Twitter said the accounts breached its policies on “platform manipulation and spam,” while Meta said the assets on its platforms engaged in “coordinated inauthentic behavior.”

The Stanford-Graphika report at one point tended to hose down the reach and influence of the fake accounts: “The vast majority of [the hundreds of thousands of] posts and tweets we reviewed, received no more than a handful of likes or retweets, and only 19 percent of the covert assets we identified had more than 1,000 followers.”

While this may give critics of the report a thread to cling to, hundreds of fake accounts with thousands of followers is certainly substantial. Elsewhere in the report, the operation is described as “the most extensive case of covert pro-Western IO [Information Operation] on social media to be reviewed and analysed by open-source researchers to date.”

The researchers did not identify which U.S. entities were running the program, however did note that: 

“The accounts sometimes shared news articles from US government-funded media outlets, such as Voice of America and Radio Free Europe, and links to websites sponsored by the US military.”

Amongst the data analysed, two distinct disinformation campaigns were identified. One is a previously exposed disinformation campaign run by the Pentagon, while the second comprises a previously unknown series of covert operations of unspecified origin.

The Stanford-Graphika researchers found in the datasets one campaign to be “linked to an overt US government messaging campaign called the Trans-Regional Web Initiative.” The first evidence of this program came from Washington-based thinktank, the Stimson Center, in 2012 — their report is now off-line but is archived here.

This “Web Initiative” influence program has been run by the U.S. military’s elite Special Operations Command (SOCOM) during the 2010s, deploying dozens of Military Information Support Operations (MISO) teams on psychological operations around the world at the request of military commanders in the field, and ambassadors in a range of U.S. embassies.

SOCOM had contracted some of its development work on the multimillion dollar disinformation operation to the Rendon Group, a C.I.A.-linked contractor notorious for influencing public opinion and Western media before the start of the Iraq War in 2003.

SOCOM’s influence operation included preparing websites that offer news, cultural reports, sports and other programming to “target audiences,” such as Southeast Europe Times and Central Asia Online. The websites “have the strong appearance of civilian journalism” and seek “to express the United States and its operations in a positive light.”


Covert Clusters Exposed

The newly-revealed covert clusters of the Information Operation (IO) received closer examination by the Stanford-Graphika report, which identified it as “the most extensive case of covert pro-Western IO on social media” so far examined by open-source researchers.

The covert pro-Western fake accounts identified by Twitter and Meta had “created fake personas with GAN (Generative Adversarial Network-computer-generated) faces, posed as independent media outlets, leveraged memes and short-form videos, attempted to start hashtag campaigns, and launched online petitions.”

Through social media network mapping, the covert Twitter accounts were targeting Middle East audiences primarily in Iran (45 percent), Afghanistan, Iraq and also Central Asia. Analysis also found “smaller community clusters in the network containing mixed international accounts focused loosely on a variety of international figures and organizations.”

Some of the covert accounts targeted regions of Russia and China. “The operation targeted Russian-speaking Central Asian audiences and focused on praising American aid to Central Asia and criticizing Russia, particularly its foreign policy. Two assets concentrated on China and the treatment of Chinese Muslim minorities, particularly the Uighurs in Xinjiang province.”

The researchers found the disinformation clusters focused on several pro-Western topics, being 

“US diplomatic and humanitarian efforts in the region, Russia’s alleged malign influence, Russian military interventions in the Middle East and Africa, and Chinese ‘imperialism’ and treatment of Muslim minorities.”


The Russia Cluster

Ukraine became the focus of much of the covert Twitter operation from February. The researchers found “assets that previously posted about Russian military activities in the Middle East and Africa pivoted towards the war in Ukraine, presenting the conflict as a threat to people in Central Asia.”

“Shortly after the invasion began in February, accounts promoted pro-Ukrainian protests in Central Asian countries. Later posts reported on evidence of atrocities committed by Russian troops and Russia’s block on Ukrainian grain exports.”

The covert campaign, citing Russia’s “imperial” ambitions, presented the U.S. as ‘the main guarantor of Central Asia’s sovereignty against Russia.”

“Other posts criticized Russia’s use of propaganda to spread anti-West and pro-Russia narratives in Central Asia, depicting Russia as a nefarious actor working to undermine independent democracies.”

The covert operation established “fake personas” linked to “sham media outlets” purporting to report news from events in Central Asia. Several of these sites and pages attracted as many as 6,000 followers.

Facebook transparency data showed administrator locations of four of the fake pages as being in France, but Meta analysis found them to be actually “originated in the US.” Several pages posted pictures of Paris and its monuments in an attempt to obfuscate the true U.S. origins.

Several of the fake “news” sites, such as Intergazeta and Vostochnaya Pravda, translated content into Russian from the websites of the BBC Russian Service, U.S. embassies in Central Asia, and U.S.-funded Radio Free Europe. They also often obtained content from media outlets directly sponsored by the U.S. Central Command, particularly Caravanserai.

At least four of the sham media outlets “made apparent attempts to launch hashtag campaigns related to the war in Ukraine.” One site posting about the Russian invasion of Ukraine used the not-so-subtle hashtag translated as #TodayUkraineTomorrowCentralAsia. The report’s audience analysis found these attempts did not gain significant traction.


The China Cluster

The researchers found a small cluster of assets of the Central Asia group was focused almost exclusively on China. “These accounts — a fake persona and sham media outlet — mainly focused on the genocide of Uighurs and Muslim minorities in ‘re-education’ camps in Xinjiang.”

Posts described “alleged organ trafficking, forced labor, sexual crimes against Muslim women, and suspicious disappearances of ethnic Muslims in Xinjiang.” Other assets in the group also posted about China, asserting that “Chinese authoritarianism and financial imperialism threatened Central Asia and other regions of the world.”

The covert social media assets “frequently referred to China’s cooperation with Russia, especially on military issues, and said Beijing should be held responsible for Russia’s invasion of Ukraine because the CCP had secretly supplied the Kremlin with weapons.”

This fake narrative of China supplying Russia with weapons for the Ukraine war was also spread in the West, but it was quickly debunked, and now even the Ukraine Military is admitting it was a fake story.


The Iran Cluster

Fake accounts in the Iran cluster “frequently claimed to be Iranian and often Iranian women [with] listed professions such as ‘teacher’ and ‘political activist.’”

Some of the fake Persian-language media outlets showed a certain flare. The tagline of YouTube channel Fahim News is “Accurate news and information.” Dariche News outlet claims to be proving “uncensored and unbiased news,” and declares it is “an independent website… unaffiliated with any group or organization.”

Material for the fake Iran outlets is sourced from U.S.-funded Persian language sites, but also from the U.K.-based TV station, Iran International, reported to be funded by a businessman with ties to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

On Aug. 18, a post from the fake Fahim News outlet said that social media is the only way Iranians can access the free world and is the main enemy of the Iranian regime’s propaganda. “Therefore, the regime uses all its efforts to censor and filter the Internet.”

Disinformation peddlers certainly like to play a double-game.

Accounts in the Iran cluster exhibited some spammy characteristics likely geared towards building a large online audience. Many accounts “posted non-political filler content” including Iranian poetry, photos of Persian food, and even cute photos of cats.

“We observed multiple instances of accounts in the Iran group sharing content from sources linked to the U S military.” Perhaps clumsily, one Twitter account that presented itself as “an Iranian individual living in Cambridge” posted links to Almashareq and Diyaruna, two Persian-language news websites sponsored by the U.S. Central Command.

The Iran cluster also focused on an irritation point for the Iranian government — women’s rights. “Posts also noted that little has changed for women in Iran over time. Many posts highlighted domestic protests against hijab dress requirements.”


The Afghanistan Cluster

A smaller number of Afghanistan assets was found to be using similar techniques to the other clusters such as AI-created profile images, fake news sites and information from U.S. sources.

The sites “consistently advanced narratives critical of Iran and its actions.” “Sometimes these narratives included inflammatory claims accompanied by articles from the US military-linked website afghanistan.asia-news.com.”

The report cites a provocative example: “A tweet from March 11 2022 which claimed that relatives of deceased Afghanistan refugees had reported bodies being returned from Iran with missing organs.” The article includes interviews with a purported Afghan official and Afghan nurse making the same unverified claims.

Since the fall of Afghanistan to the Taliban in August 2021, the fake sites have “highlighted women’s protests against Taliban authorities and criticised Afghanistan’s new government for its treatment of women and journalists.”


The Middle East Cluster

The Middle East cluster used its covert assets to focus on issues primarily related to Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen. This group “chiefly promoted narratives seeking to undermine Iran’s influence in the region.” It did this through a spread of inflammatory allegations and stories designed to influence audiences.

Several fake Twitter accounts “posed as Iraqi activists in order to accuse Iran of threatening Iraq’s water security, and flooding the country with crystal meth.” “Other assets highlighted Houthi-planted landmines killing civilians, and promoted allegations that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine will lead to global food crisis.”

Multiple assets posted similar content, similarly timed, that was clearly being shared and coordinated. Some sloppy operational security by the operators of the Middle East cluster is also on display.

One Twitter page pretending to be of an Iraqi man named “Discoverer” and using a fake AI-generated profile photo, posted predominantly about misdeeds of the Iranian government. However archived versions of the Twitter account show that prior to May 2021, it used a different profile photo, identified as an “account belonging to the US Central Command,” and listed its location as “Florida, USA.”

Incidentally, Florida is home to the headquarters of the U.S. Central Command or CENTCOM, located at MacDill Airforce Base in Tampa. Coincidentally, CENTCOM’s Area of Responsibility (AOR) extends across the Middle East, Central Asia and parts of South Asia, the same patch of the globe as covered by the Information Operations reported here.

Notably, CENTACOM states it uses Information Operations (IO) campaigns that “include counter-propaganda messaging… in internet and social media.” These IO campaigns serve 

“as a force multiplier in the information space… to counter state-sponsored destabilizing activities across the CENTCOM AOR.


Attributing the ‘Information Operation’ 

Determining with absolute certainty the identity of the origin of these unprecedented influence operations described here is, according to the report writers, not possible.

However, using a standard of proof used by one of this report’s researchers, Graphika, to inculpate Russia in a previous operation of an influence campaign, it is surprising they could not reach a stronger conclusion.

In describing a leak of trade documents that threatened to benefit the U.K. Labour Party in the 2019 U.K. general election, Ben Nimmo of Grafika studied the leaks and later noted he “cannot provide attribution of the operation,” however the report boldly stated that the leaks were:

  • “disseminated in a similar fashion to Russian operation Secondary Infektion.”
  • “amplified online in a way that closely resembles a known Russian information operation.”
  • “the similarities … are too close to be simply coincidence.”
  • “the account … made specific errors that were characteristic of Secondary Infektion.”
  • “tweeting … resembled earlier amplification efforts by Secondary Infektion.”

The Graphika report was unashamedly titled: “UK Trade Leaks: Operators Keen To Hide Their Identity’s Disseminated Leaked UK/US Trade Documents In A Similar Fashion To Russian Operation Secondary Infection Exposed In June 2019.” It was obvious what would happen next.

Not unexpectedly the mainstream media picked up the report, consistently referring to it as a Russian disinformation operation, with headlines such as The Guardian’s “Russia involved in leak of papers,” SkyNews’s “Leaked documents cited by Corbyn ‘tied to Russia group,’” and The Telegraph’s “Russians tried to interfere in election by promoting leaked trade documents touted by Jeremy Corbyn.”

The implications of such a condemnation helped sink the election campaign of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn.

Some conclusions about the Stanford-Graphika “Unheard Voice” report can be reached that hold a high level of certainty. In fact, the degree of certainty looks to exceed that of Graphika’s “UK Trade Leaks” report.

It is apparent from its purpose, targeting, narratives, techniques, sources and even some meta-data left in their trail just who the creators of the covert Information Operations identified in the Stanford-Graphika “Unheard Voice” report may be.

The providers of the datasets the research is based upon have stated their views – Twitter states the “presumptive countries of origin” for their data is the U.S. and U.K., and for Meta “the country of origin” is the U.S.

The Information Operations, reported in the Stanford-Graphika report and described here by Declassified Australia, can be confidently stated as being operated by groups or individuals affiliated with U.S. military entities, are promoting U.S. military and U.S. imperial aims in the targeted countries. Those targeted countries are all designated enemies of the U.S. and methods and techniques exposed by the report are proven to have been used by U.S. military propaganda units and indeed in some cases the links are direct. Much of their source information is originated from U.S.-funded media sites, U.S. embassies, and U.S. military units, and, finally, metadata crumbs point to the U.S. military.

Two sensitive sources have since spoken anonymously about this “most extensive covert pro-Western Information Operation on social media” telling The Washington Post that “U.S. Central Command is among those whose activities are facing scrutiny.”

There does not seem to be any available evidence against such a conclusion, at this juncture, that this unprecedented Information Operation is a massive covert U.S. military propaganda operation.



Peter Cronau  is an award-winning investigative journalist, writer, and film-maker. His documentaries have appeared on ABC TV’s Four Corners and Radio National’s Background Briefing. He is an editor and cofounder of DECLASSIFIED AUSTRALIA. He is co-editor of the recent book A Secret Australia – Revealed by the WikiLeaks Exposés.


This article is from Declassified Australia.

The views expressed are solely those of the author and may or may not reflect those of Consortium News.









psy-op porkies…..


By Felix Livshitz


A bombshell Washington Post investigation has revealed that the Pentagon is conducting a “sweeping audit of how it conducts clandestine information warfare,” after a variety of social media accounts, which its operatives used to target foreign audiences in elaborate psychological warfare efforts, were exposed.

The accounts violated platform rules and were eventually busted by researchers and the social networks they weaponized.

US defense policy advisor Colin Kahl is reported to have demanded that every Pentagon division engaged in “psychological operations online” provides a full account of their activities by October, due to high-level concerns that “attempted manipulation of audiences overseas” by the Department of Defense have significantly overstepped the mark. 

Those fears were apparently stoked by the release of a landmark report in August by social media analytics firm Graphika, and the Stanford Internet Observatory, which found that over the past five years, hundreds of accounts disseminating pro-Western narratives - such as a recent propaganda blitz that “advanced anti-Russia narratives,”including criticism of the Kremlin’s “imperialist” war in Ukraine - were likely being run by the Pentagon’s Centcom unit.

Centcom is responsible for military operations of every sort across 21 countries in the Middle East, North Africa and Central and South Asia. According to Graphika’s report, among the accounts taken down was a fictional Persian-language news outlet that shared content reposted from US state-run propaganda platforms Voice of America Farsi and Radio Free Europe. 

One account was found to have posted content claiming that relatives of deceased Afghan refugees had reported bodies of their loved ones being returned from Iran with missing organs. The obvious purpose of the exercise was to prevent Afghans fleeing to the neighboring country. Quite why isn’t clear, although a defense official told the Washington Post that such activity would “absolutely be a violation of doctrine and training practices.”

Strikingly, the newspaper also independently learned that in 2020, Facebook permanently banned fake accounts, created by Centcom to counter claims that COVID19 may have escaped from US biological weapons lab Fort Detrick. In other cases, the accounts even promoted information deemed by fact-checkers to be false.

Sometimes, the Pentagon went to the extent of using “deep fake” tech to create artificial personas, in the belief that “what appears to be, say, an Afghan woman or an Iranian student might be more persuasive than if they were openly pushed by the US government.”

The only problem is you got caught

The audit ordered by Kahl is sweeping and comprehensive. He wants to know “what types of operations have been carried out, who they’re targeting, what tools are being used and why military commanders have chosen those tactics, and how effective they have been.”

The Post without irony frames concerns about the Pentagon’s psychological warfare tactics as being related primarily to these efforts compromising Washington’s purported “moral high ground” globally, with a nameless diplomat quoted as saying:

“Generally speaking, we shouldn’t be employing the same kind of tactics that our adversaries are using…We are a society that is built on a certain set of values. We promote those values around the world and when we use tactics like those, it just undermines our argument about who we are.”

Residents of the Global South - including many of the countries that fall under Centcom’s purview - might bat an eyelid at talk of “values." Given how the US has operated in their countries through overt intervention and clandestine meddling for decades.

So, what actually accounts for the sudden surge of internal concern about the excesses of Pentagon psychological warfare operations? Clues are littered elsewhere in The Post’s report. For example, one peculiar passage notes that representatives of Facebook and Twitter directly contacted the Pentagon to warn them they’d been busted.

As far back as Summer 2020, David Agranovich, Facebook’s Director of Global Threat Disruption, who himself spent six years at the Pentagon then served as Director for Intelligence at the elite White House National Security Council, got in touch with his former coworkers to warn them that “if Facebook could sniff them out, so could US adversaries.” 

“His point was, ‘Guys, you got caught. That’s a problem.’”

Clearly, senior staff at major social networks consider their platforms being weaponized for information warfare purposes to be thoroughly acceptable, as long as it’s US military and intelligence operatives doing it, and they don’t get “burned” in the process. On what other occasions Facebook, Twitter et al have provided American spies with helpful pointers on improving their opsec and concealing and conducting their nefarious activities more effectively, and how, is an open question.

Don’t tread on me

Even more revealingly, The Post also notes that legislation ratified by Congress in December 2019 unbridled the Pentagon to manage “clandestine psychological operations” which it was previously prohibited from engaging, leading highers to get “really excited” and “very eager to utilize these news authorities” as a result. Defense contractors were “equally eager to land lucrative classified contracts to enable clandestine influence operations.”

In the process, the US military’s cloak-and-dagger tactics may have crossed into “what the CIA has claimed as its covert authority,” which led Langley to become “perturbed”. While The Post doesn’t acknowledge it, this was undoubtedly the Pentagon’s undoing.

Spying agencies are notoriously protective of their respective beats. Squabbling between the CIA and NSA is a well-known, perpetual phenomenon, and friction, distrust, and disputes over which was in charge of what has been blamed for some of the intelligence failures that allegedly led to 9/11.

Another entity encroaching on its turf would note be tolerated by Langley - so it would be understandable if the CIA, which celebrated its 75th birthday on 18 September, felt it necessary to throw its new rival under the bus for its own purposes. 

Graphika, which exposed the Pentagon’s online manipulation operations, is an extremely well-connected firm, having conducted high-level work for numerous government agencies. It would be easy for Langley to point its researchers in the right direction, or at least leave a trail of breadcrumbs for them to follow.

In December 1963, former US President Harry S. Truman, who created the Agency when he signed the National Security Act of 1947 into law, expressed grave concerns about what it had mutated into. 

He’d originally envisaged an effective newswire service, providing the Oval Office with regular information to inform foreign policy decisions, but had quickly become “disturbed” that the “quiet intelligence arm of the President”had quickly “been diverted from its original assignment,”and grown into “an operational and at times a policy-making arm of the government.”

Noting that “this has led to trouble and may have compounded our difficulties in several explosive areas,”Truman urged for the CIA to be reined in, and returned to his original vision. His entreaties were ignored - today, the Agency is, in many ways, the true government of the US. And even the almighty Pentagon isn’t safe.









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