Wednesday 19th of June 2024

the chip computing dilemma......

As an important member of the U.S. plan to "block chip technology from China", Samsung Electronics has had great success.

Now the feng shui turns, when China's domestic chips are rising strongly, Samsung is ushering in a critical blow.

Recently, Samsung announced its financial report for the first quarter of 2023. Its profit plummeted by 96%, from 14.12 trillion won in the same period last year to 600 billion won, which was worse than the financial crisis in 2008.

In this regard, even the South Korean media couldn't stand it anymore, and used "shame" to evaluate this incident. From unlimited scenery to plummeting profits, why did Samsung develop like this?

"China Focus" is a YouTube channel created to provide current events and pop culture headlines from China.

Here you can get to know a more real China through my video. #ChineseNews #chips #ChinaFocus

SEE VIDEO:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUkkTZRJGug

 

 

SEE ALSO:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJpbFe3bg3E

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1pIIcenm-OE

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D82iqWGyZdQ

 

 

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explaining the jargon....

Dynamic random-access memory (dynamic RAM or DRAM) is a type of  random-accesssemiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell, usually consisting of a tiny capacitor and a transistor, both typically based on metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) technology. While most DRAM memory cell designs use a capacitor and transistor, some only use two transistors. In the designs where a capacitor is used, the capacitor can either be charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. The electric charge on the capacitors gradually leaks away; without intervention the data on the capacitor would soon be lost. To prevent this, DRAM requires an external memory refresh circuit which periodically rewrites the data in the capacitors, restoring them to their original charge. This refresh process is the defining characteristic of dynamic random-access memory, in contrast to static random-access memory (SRAM) which does not require data to be refreshed. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory (vs. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data quickly when power is removed. However, DRAM does exhibit limited data remanence.

DRAM typically takes the form of an integrated circuit chip, which can consist of dozens to billions of DRAM memory cells. DRAM chips are widely used in digital electronics where low-cost and high-capacity computer memory is required. One of the largest applications for DRAM is the main memory (colloquially called the "RAM") in modern computers and graphics cards (where the "main memory" is called the graphics memory). It is also used in many portable devices and video game consoles. In contrast, SRAM, which is faster and more expensive than DRAM, is typically used where speed is of greater concern than cost and size, such as the cache memories in processors.

The need to refresh DRAM demands more complicated circuitry and timing than SRAM. This is offset by the structural simplicity of DRAM memory cells: only one transistor and a capacitor are required per bit, compared to four or six transistors in SRAM. This allows DRAM to reach very high densities with a simultaneous reduction in cost per bit. Refreshing the data consumes power and a variety of techniques are used to manage the overall power consumption.

 

READ MORE: 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_random-access_memory

 

Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. The two main types of flash memory, NOR flash and NAND flash, are named for the NOR and NAND logic gates. Both use the same cell design, consisting of floating gate MOSFETs. They differ at the circuit level depending on whether the state of the bit line or word lines is pulled high or low: in NAND flash, the relationship between the bit line and the word lines resembles a NAND gate; in NOR flash, it resembles a NOR gate.

Flash memory, a type of floating-gate memory, was invented at Toshiba in 1980 and is based on EEPROM technology. Toshiba began marketing flash memory in 1987.[1] EPROMs had to be erased completely before they could be rewritten. NAND flash memory, however, may be erased, written, and read in blocks (or pages), which generally are much smaller than the entire device. NOR flash memory allows a single machine word to be written – to an erased location – or read independently. A flash memory device typically consists of one or more flash memory chips(each holding many flash memory cells), along with a separate flash memory controller chip.

The NAND type is found mainly in memory cardsUSB flash drivessolid-state drives (those produced since 2009), feature phonessmartphones, and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. NAND or NOR flash memory is also often used to store configuration data in digital products, a task previously made possible by EEPROM or battery-powered static RAM. A key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can endure only a relatively small number of write cycles in a specific block.[2]

Flash memory[3] is used in computersPDAsdigital audio playersdigital camerasmobile phonessynthesizersvideo gamesscientific instrumentationindustrial robotics, and medical electronics. Flash memory has fast read access time, but it is not as fast as static RAM or ROM. In portable devices, it is preferred to use flash memory because of its mechanical shock resistance since mechanical drives are more prone to mechanical damage.[4]

Because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over non-flash EEPROM when writing large amounts of data. As of 2019, flash memory costs much less[by how much?] than byte-programmable EEPROM and had become the dominant memory type wherever a system required a significant amount of non-volatile solid-state storage. EEPROMs, however, are still used in applications that require only small amounts of storage, as in serial presence detect.[5][6]

Flash memory packages can use die stacking with through-silicon vias and several dozen layers of 3D TLC NAND cells (per die) simultaneously to achieve capacities of up to 1 tebibyte per package using 16 stacked dies and an integrated flash controller as a separate die inside the package.[7][8][9][10]

 

READ MORE:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_memory

 

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cold chips....

Quantum chips have become an important development track for the semiconductor industry and a key component in the deployment of quantum computing technology. The Chinese manufacturer Benyuan Quantum has built the first quantum chip production line in China, laying the foundation for the mass production of quantum chips in China. Following the quantum chip production line, China has made another breakthrough in quantum technology and created a "quantum chip refrigerator". What kind of high-tech product is this? "China Focus" is a YouTube channel created to provide current events and pop culture headlines from China.Here you can get to know a more real China through my video. |

 

China Makes the First Quantum Chip "Refrigerator"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPtXrL11xoc

 

 

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a chip question.....

Biden CAUGHT red handed with a reporter cheat sheet, getting questions ahead of time | Redacted News

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivZT0tjKn8E

 

A cheat sheet held by President Biden during a Wednesday press conference shows the president is given questions from journalists ahead of time. And he's told which journalists to call on for questions.

 

 

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chips ahoy...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWtbhDpu5U At present, the world is still relatively short of chips. Everyone knows that the manufacture of traditional chips is inseparable from lithography machines, especially high-end chips. Under the current circumstances, increasing chip production capacity has become a consensus among semiconductor companies around the world. However, there are only a few suppliers of high-end lithography machines in the world, and most of them rely on American technology to complete mass production. Among them, ASML in the Netherlands almost monopolizes the global high-end lithography machine market. ASML can be said to be the only one, earning a lot of money.  gaslighting china…...

 

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joke of the day…...

 

of prostitutes….

 

inhumanity at unit 721….

 

a strong rebuke from the US….

 

prince unconstitutionally charming…….

 

democratic hypocrisy….

 

delusions…..

 

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chips in china......

 

By Vijay Prashad

Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research

 

On October 7, 2022, the United States government implemented export controls in an effort to hinder the development of China’s semiconductor industry. 

An expert on the subject told the Financial Times, “The whole point of the policy is to kneecap China’s AI [Artificial Intelligence] and HPC [High Performance Computing] efforts.” The next day, China’s Foreign Ministry spokesperson Mao Ning said:

“In order to maintain its sci-tech hegemony, the U.S. has been abusing export control measures to wantonly block and hobble Chinese enterprises. Such practice runs counter to the principle of fair competition and international trade rules. It will not only harm Chinese companies’ legitimate rights and interests but also hurt the interests of U.S. companies. It will hinder international sci-tech exchange and trade cooperation and deal a blow to global industrial and supply chains and world economic recovery. By politicising tech and trade issues and using them as a tool and weapon, the U.S. cannot hold back China’s development but will only hurt and isolate itself when its action backfires.”

As part of Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research’s collaboration with No Cold War, we studied the implications of these export controls with a focus on semiconductors. Briefing No. 7 teaches us about the vitality of semiconductors and why their use in the New Cold War will not bear the fruits anticipated by Washington.

On April 8, the chairman of the U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee ,Michael McCaul, was asked by Chuck Todd of NBC News to explain “why Americans… should be willing to spill American blood and treasure to defend Taiwan.” His answer was telling: “TSMC [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company] manufactures 90 percent of the global supply of advanced semiconductor chips. If China invades and either owns or breaks. this, we are in a world of hurt globally.”

The interviewer noted that McCaul’s reasoning “sounds like the case that [was] made in the ’60s,’70s and’80s of why America was spending so much money and military resources in the Middle East [when] oil was so important for the economy” and then asked whether semiconductor chips are “the 21st century version” of oil — that is, a key driver of U.S. foreign policy towards China.

Semiconductor chips are the building blocks of the world’s most advanced technologies (such as artificial intelligence, 5G telecommunications and supercomputing) as well as all modern electronics. Without them, the computers, phones, cars and devices that are essential to our everyday lives would cease to function. 

They are typically produced by using ultraviolet light to etch microscopic circuit patterns onto thin layers of silicon, packing billions of electrical switches called transistors onto a single fingernail-sized wafer. This technology advances through a relentless process of miniaturisation: the smaller the distance between transistors, the greater the density of transistors that can be packed onto a chip and the more computing power that can be embedded in each chip and in each facet of modern life. 

Today, the most advanced chips are produced with a three-nanometre (nm) process (for reference, a sheet of paper is roughly 100,000-nm thick).

The Semiconductor Supply Chain

The commercial semiconductor industry was developed in Silicon Valley, California, in the late 1950s, dominated by the United States in all aspects, from research and design to manufacture and sales. From the outset, this industry held geopolitical significance, with early manufacturers selling upwards of 95 percent of their chips to the Pentagon or the aerospace sector.

Over the subsequent decades, the U.S. selectively offshored most of its chip manufacturing to its East Asian allies, first to Japan, then to South Korea and Taiwan. This allowed the U.S. to reduce its capital and labour costs and stimulate the industrial development of its allies while continuing to dominate the supply chain.

Today, U.S. firms maintain a commanding presence in chip design (e.g., Intel, AMD, Broadcom, Qualcomm and NVIDIA) and fabrication equipment (e.g., Applied Materials, Lam Research and KLA).

Taiwan’s TSMC is the world’s largest semiconductor manufacturer or foundry, accounting for an overwhelming 56 percent share of the global market and over 90 percent of advanced chip manufacturing in 2022, followed by South Korea’s Samsung, which holds a 15 percent share of the global market. In addition, the Dutch firm ASML is a critical player, holding a monopoly on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography machines needed to produce the most advanced chips below 7-nm.

The largest part of the semiconductor supply chain that lies outside of the control of the U.S. and its allies is in China, which has developed into the world’s electronics manufacturing hub and a major technological power over the past four decades. China’s share of global chip manufacturing capacity has risen from zero in 1990 to roughly 15 percent in 2020.

Yet, despite its sizeable developmental advances, China’s chip production capabilities still lag behind, relying on imports for the most advanced chips (in 2020, China imported $378 billion worth of semiconductors, 18 percent of its total imports). Meanwhile, China’s largest semiconductor manufacturer, SMIC, only has a 5 percent share of the global market, paling in comparison to TSMC.

The U.S. Campaign Against China

In recent years, the U.S. has been waging an aggressive campaign to arrest China’s technological development, which it views as a serious threat to its dominance. In the words of U.S. National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan, Washington’s goal is to “maintain as large of a lead as possible.”

To this end, the U.S. has identified China’s semiconductor production capabilities as an important weakness and is trying to block the country’s access to advanced chips and chip-making technology. Under the Trump and Biden administrations, the U.S. has placed hundreds of Chinese companies on trade and investment blacklists, including the country’s leading semiconductor manufacturer SMIC and tech giant Huawei.

These restrictions have banned any company in the world that uses U.S. products — effectively every chip designer and manufacturer — from doing business with Chinese tech firms.

The U.S. has also pressured governments and firms around the world to impose similar restrictions. Since 2018, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have joined the U.S. in banning Huawei from their 5G telecommunications networks while a number of European countries have implemented partial bans or restrictions. 

Importantly, in 2019, after more than a year of intense U.S. lobbying, the Dutch government blocked the key firm ASML, which builds and supplies the most advanced chip-making machinery to the semiconductor industry, from exporting its equipment to China.

These policies do not only target firms; they also have a direct impact on an individual level. In October 2022, the Biden administration restricted “U.S. persons” — including citizens, residents and green-card holders — from working for Chinese chip firms, forcing many to choose between their immigration status and their jobs. The Centre for Strategic and International Studies, a leading Washington, D.C., think tank, characterised U.S. policy as “actively strangling large segments of the Chinese technology industry – strangling with an intent to kill” (our emphasis).

Alongside its containment measures against China, the U.S. has ramped up efforts to boost its domestic chip-making capacity. The CHIPS and Science Act, signed into law in August 2022, provides $280 billion in funding to boost the domestic U.S. semiconductor industry and re-shore production from East Asia. 

Washington views Taiwan’s role as the manufacturing hub of the semiconductor industry as a strategic vulnerability given its proximity to mainland China and is inducing TSMC to relocate production to Phoenix. This pressure, in turn, is generating its own frictions in the U.S.-Taiwan relationship.

However, U.S. efforts are not infallible. Although China has suffered serious setbacks, it has intensified efforts to promote its domestic capacity, and there are signs of progress despite the obstacles imposed by the U.S. For example, in 2022, China’s SMIC reportedly achieved a significant technological breakthrough, making the leap from 14-nm to 7-nm semiconductor chips, which is on par with the global leaders Intel, TSMC, and Samsung.

A Matter of Global Importance

It is important to note that the U.S. is not only targeting China in this conflict: Washington fears that China’s technological development will lead, through trade and investment, to the dispersal of advanced technologies more broadly throughout the world, namely, to states in the Global South that the U.S. sees as a threat. This would be a significant blow to U.S. power over these countries.

In 2020, the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee decried China for facilitating “digital authoritarianism” because it has “been willing to go into smaller, under-served markets” and “offer more cost-effective equipment than Western companies,” pointing to countries under U.S. sanctions such as Venezuela and Zimbabwe as examples.

To combat ties between Chinese tech firms and sanctioned countries, the U.S. has taken severe legal action, fining the Chinese corporation ZTE $1.2 billion in 2017 for violating U.S. sanctions against Iran and North Korea. The U.S. also collaborated with Canada to arrest Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou in 2018 on charges of circumventing U.S. sanctions against Iran.

Unsurprisingly, while the U.S. has been able to consolidate support for its agenda amongst a number of its Western allies, its efforts have failed across the Global South. It is in the interest of developing countries for such advanced technologies to be dispersed as widely as possible — not to be controlled by a select few states.

If you are reading this newsletter on your smartphone, then you should know that this tiny instrument has billions of miniscule transistors that are invisible to the human eye. The scale of the developments in digital technology is staggering. 

Earlier conflicts took place over energy and food, but now this conflict has heated up over — amongst other matters — the resources of our digital world. This technology can be used to solve so many of our dilemmas, and yet, here we are, at the precipice of greater conflict to benefit the few over the needs of the many.

Vijay Prashad is an Indian historian, editor and journalist. He is a writing fellow and chief correspondent at Globetrotter. He is an editor of LeftWord Books and the director of Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research. He is a senior non-resident fellow at Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies, Renmin University of China. He has written more than 20 books, including The Darker Nations and The Poorer Nations.  His latest books are Struggle Makes Us Human: Learning from Movements for Socialism and, with Noam Chomsky,  The Withdrawal: Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, and the Fragility of U.S. Power.

This article is from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research.

 

 

READ MORE:

https://consortiumnews.com/2023/05/05/you-are-reading-this-thanks-to-semiconductors/

 

 

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 SEE Also:  united states terrorism……..

 

joke of the day…...

 

of prostitutes….

 

inhumanity at unit 721….

 

a strong rebuke from the US….

 

prince unconstitutionally charming…….

 

democratic hypocrisy….

 

delusions…..

 

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chinese chips.....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ARlrhxUhNE

 

According to customs data, in the first quarter of 2023, the domestic import of chips was 108.2 billion, a decrease of 32.1 billion from the previous year. Coupled with the cumulative reduction of 97 billion in 2022, the total is 129.1 billion.

Some foreign media have pointed out: "SMIC is the big winner!" Since the second quarter of 2021, China has begun to reduce the import of chips. In the first quarter of 2022, the import of chips decreased by 21%. This trend directly affected the chip industry in the United States and TSMC. After losing the Chinese market, US companies face huge economic losses and can only maintain normal operations through layoffs.

China is one of the largest chip procurement countries in the world, consuming over 70% of global chip shares. Reducing chip imports affects the production and exports of US chip manufacturers, leading to a significant compression of the US chip manufacturers' market share and profit.

For TSMC, although the reduction in Chinese imports will not directly affect its business, if the chip purchases of other countries also decrease, it will lead to a reduction in the global chip market supply, which will in turn affect TSMC's customer demand and revenue. If the United States continues to take export control measures against China, TSMC's days are also destined to be difficult.

 

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US vs holland.....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtEth5wuFfY

Netherlands Will Make the U.S Pay This Way After Becoming a Scapegoat!

 

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