Sunday 10th of December 2023

lesson in political wisdom…


How Grandgouzier spared Toucquedillon humanely….

Toucquedillon was introduced to Grandgouzier, and questioned by him about the princely and affairs of Picrochole, what end he meant by this tumultuous uproar. To which Toucquedillon replied, that his end and his destiny was to conquest the whole country if he could, to avenge the offence done to his pâtissiers (cakemakers). 

It is (said Grandgouzier) too enterprising, “who uses too much embrace, has little restraint”. The time is no longer thus to conquest kingdoms doing damage to one's next Christian brother — in imitation of the ancients, Hercules, Alexander, Hannibal, Scipion, Caesars, & others. Such is contrary to the profession of the gospel, by which we are commanded to guard, save, govern, and administer all countries and lands, not hostilely invade others. And what the Saracens and Barbarians called prowess, now we call savagery, and wickedness. Better to have contained oneself in one's house royally governing it than to insult mine, hostilely plundering it. For by governing it well would have increased it, by plundering it would have been destroyed. Go in the name of God, follow good company, show your king, the errors you know. And never advise it having regard to your own particular profit, for with the common is also their own loss. When it comes to your ransom, I give it to you in full, and I want you to be returned with weapons and horses, so it must be done between neighbours and former friends, seeing that this is our difference, is not a war properly. As Plato wanted there to be no named war, so sedition when the Greeks moved armed against each other. What if by bad luck happened, he ordered that we use all modesty. If you call it war, it is only superficial: it does not enter the deep cabinet of our hearts. Because none of us is insulted in our honour: and in short, there is no question of anything other than blaming some fault committed by our people, that is, yours and ours. Even though you knew it, you had to let it flow, because the quarrelling characters were more to be looked at, than to be seen again, even their satisfaction according to the grievance, as I offered myself. God will be a just estimator of our difference, which he will most certainly by death condemn me for this life, and my goods to perish before my eyes, so that by me neither of mine in any way be offended. 

These words finished, called the Friar, and above all asked him, brother Jean, my friend, are you the one who captured Captain Toucquedillon here present? Sir (said the Monk) he is here present, he has age and discretion, I would rather know this by his confession, than by my word. Nonetheless, said Toucquedillon, Lord, it is he who took me, and I remain his prisoner of him frankly. Did you (said Grandgouzier to the monk) put him in ransom? No, said the Friar. I don't care about that. How much (said Grandgouzier) would you like to see for the prince? Nothing, nothing (said the Monk) that does not interest me. Then commanded Grandgouzier, let Toucquedillon present to the Monk sixty-two thousand gold coins, for this prince. This was done while the feast was being celebrated for the said Toucquedillon, who was asked by Grandgouzier if he wanted to stay with him, or if he would rather return to his king? Toucquedillon replied that he would hold the party he would recommend to him. So (said Grandgouzier) return to your king, and God be with you. Then gave him a beautiful sword from Vienna, with a gold sheath made with beautiful goldsmith vignettes, and a gold necklace weighing seven pounds, garnished with fine stones, estimated at one hundred and sixty thousand Ducas, and ten thousand Ecus by this honorable present. After this, Toucquedillon mounted his horse. Gargantua for his safety gave him thirty men-at-arms and six-twenty archers under the leadership of Gymnast, to escort him to the gates of Roche Clermaud, if necessary. Thus departed, the Monk returned to Grandgouzier the sixty-two thousand gold coins he had received, saying: “But it is not now that you must make such donations, wait until the end of this war, because we do not know what affairs could arise. And a war waged without a good supply of money has only a little vigour. The nerves of battles are gold coins.” Therefore (said Grandgouzier) in the end I will be satisfied with an honest reward, and for all those who have served me well.



Languages diversity is not a curse. 

Language can induced contempt — or shall I say, habit of misunderstanding.

In many instance, language is used to dominate us aka Big Brother (1984). Words become slanted with unmeaning.

Translation of works such as the one above are challenging, that is to say, one needs to find the new lingo-words that convey the original meanings without betraying the elegance nor the shock value contained — which to some extent can become incomprehensible in the original language (old French)... The concepts are often over the head of the readers, who are too young, too eager to move on to the next amusing follies. The ideas above seem odd, yet unfortunately they are not in our mist nder the hegemony of the American Empire.

Text such as the one above were studied at school by French pupils who had no idea about the depth and meanings expressed... 

François Rabelais is more well-known than Agrippa d'Aubigné.  d'Aubigné was somewhat ignored by the French literati for he did not conform. He was a staunch Protestant, and a warrior who hated war... 


Meanwhile, American English is being used by the American Empire to subdue everyone else.... Beware.



original text......

TOucquedillon fut presenté à Grandgouzier, et interrogé par icelluy sus l’entreprinze & affayres de Picrochole, quelle fin il pretendoyt par cest tumultuaire vacarme. À quoy respondoyt, que sa fin & sa destinée estoyt de conquester tout le pays s’il povoyt, pour l’iniure faicte à ses fouaciers. C’est (dist Grandgouzier) trop entreprint, qui 

trop embrasse peu estrainct. Le temps n’est plus d’ainsi conquester les royaulmes avecques dommaige de son prochain frère christian, ceste imitation des anciens, Hercules, Alexandre, Hannibalz, Scipions, Cesars, & aultres telz est contraire à la profession de l’evangile. Par lequel nous est commandé, garder, saulver, regir, et administrer chascun ses pays et terres, non hostilement envahir les aultres. Et ce que les Sarrazins & Barbares iadys appelloient prouesses, maintenant no’appellons briguanderies, et mechansetez. Mieulx eust il faict soy contenir en sa maison royallement la gouvernant que insulter en la mienne, hostilement la pillant. Car par bien la gouverner l’eust augmentée, par me piller sera destruict. Allez vous en au nom de dieu suyvez bonne entreprinse remonstrez à vostre roy les erreurs que congnoistrez. Et iamais ne le conseillez ayant esgard à vostre profit particulier, car avecques le commun est aussy leur propre perdu. Quand est de vostre ranczon, ie vous la donne entierement, & veulx que vous soient renduez armes & cheval, ainsi fault il fayre entre voisins & anciens amis, veu que ceste nostre difference, n’est poinct guerre proprement. Comme Platon vouloit estre non guerre nommée, ains sedition quant les Grecz meuvoient armes les uns contre les aultres. Ce que si par male fortune advenoyt, il commende qu’on usa de toute modeste. Si guerre la nommez, elle n’est que superficiaire : elle n’entre poinct au profond cabinet de noz cueurs. Car nul de nous n’est oultraigé en son honneur : & n’est question en somme totale, que de rabiller quelque faulte commise par noz gens, ientends & vostres & nostres. Laquelle encore que congneussiez, vo’doiviez laisser couler oultre, car les personnages querelans estoient plus à contempner, que à ramentevoir, mesmement leurs satisfaisant scelon le grief, comme ie me suis offert. Dieu sera iuste estimateur de nostre different, lequel ie supply plus toust par mort me tollir de ceste vie, & mes biens de perir davant mes yeulx, que par moy ny les miens en rien soyt offence. Ces paroles achevées appella le Moyne, et davant tout luy demanda, frère Iean mon amy estez vous qui avez prins le capitaine Toucquedillon icy present ? Cire (dist le moyne) il est icy present, il a aage & discretion, iayme mieulx que le sachez par sa confession, que par ma parole. Adoncques dist Toucquedillon. Seigneur cest luy tablement qui m’a prins, & ie me rends son prisonnier franchement. L’avez vous (dist Grandgouzier au moyne) mis à ranczon ? Non, dist le moyne. De cela ie ne me soucie. Combien (dist Grandgouzier) vouldrez vo’de la prinse ? Rien rien (dist le moyne) cela ne me mène pas. Lors commenda Grandgouzier, que present Toucquedillon feussent contez au moyne soixante & deux milles saluz, pour ceste prinse. Ce que fut faict ce pendant qu’on feist la collation au dict Toucquedillon auquel demanda Grandgouzier s’il vouloit demourer avecques luy, ou si mieulx aymoit retourner à son roy ? Toucquedillon respondit, qu’il tiendroit le party lequel il luy conseilleroit. Doncques (dist Grandgouzier) retournez à vostre roy, et dieu soit avecques vous. Puis luy donna une belle espée de Vienne, avecq le fourreau d’or faict à belles vignettes d’orfeverye, & un collier d’or pesant sept marcz, garny de fines pierreries, à l’estimation de cent soixante mille ducatz, & dix mille escuz par present honorable. Après ces propous monta Toucquedillon sus son cheval. Gargantua pour sa seureté luy bailla trente hommes d’armes & six vingt archiers soubz la conduicte de Gymnaste, pour le mener iusques es portes de la Roche clermaud, si besoing estoit. Icelluy departy le moyne rendit à Grandgouzier, les soixante & deux mille salutz qu’ilz avoit repceu, disant. Cire ce n’est ores, que vo’doibvez faire telz dons, attendez la fin de ceste guerre, car l’on ne sçait quelz affaires pourroient survenir. Et guerre faicte sans bonne provision d’argent, n’a qu’un souspirail de vigueur. Les nerfz des batailles sont les pecunes. Doncques (dist Grandgouzier) à la fin ie vo’contenteray par honeste recompense, & tous ceulx qui me auront bien servy. 





defining war....


by Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirovic


There are many definitions or understandings of war. However, from the academic point of view, war can be understood as an armed conflict between at least two sides usually but not necessarily states fought usually for some (geo)political goals. The focal conceptual idea of war is the use of force between large-scale political subjects like states, empires, or coalitions. Historically, wars have been fought mainly for the control of land for different reasons ranging from a purely political one to a purely economic one or a combination of several of them.

Many types of war and warfare can be seen from the numerous adjectives that can be given before the word “war” like civil war, guerrilla war, total war, limited war, gang war, tribal war, regional war, local war, world war, religious war, race war, cold war, trade war, independence war, propaganda war, cyber war, class war, and all kinds of types of war. Some of these names, however, are, in fact, metaphors that are exploiting the image of violent conflict over some political or other goal taken from international relations (IR), and transferred to some actors who are not the states.

Nevertheless, from a very legal viewpoint, states can be at war without, in fact, using force against each other (for instance, Montenegro’s declaration of war to Japan in 1904) or vice versa, states can use force against each other on quite a large scale but formally but not having declared war against each other (for instance, the German invasion of Poland in 1939). Nonetheless, the identification of warfare with some political background concerning the reasons and goals, in theory, means that it can be applied to the system of international relations and domestic civil wars. On both levels – interstate and domestic – wars are in practice very often caused by some disputes over sovereignty and land.

The beginning of the modern form of warfare as presumably, an organized and more or less clear goal-directed violent activity comes from the development of the European state system in the early modern time, i.e. from around 1500 onward. Any war has either formal or quasi-legal character from the point of international law. The declaration of a state of war does not mean necessarily to be followed by an outbreak of hostilities (for instance, Austria-Hungary started hostilities against Serbia in 1914 one month after the war declaration). After the Cold War, the term which is more and more used is “new” wars which are characterized as being linked to intra-state ethnic conflict (for instance, the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s), the usage of advanced military technology, or the involvement of non-state actors of different nature like terrorist groups or guerrilla movements. Hegemonic and guerrilla wars are on diametrically opposite ends of the scale of different wars. The first one is a war for the creation of dominance of huge portions of the world or the entire world order by deeply restructuring the global balance of power. The guerrilla war (in Spanish “little” war) is, in fact, an insurgency or “people’s” war which is fought by irregular troops which use tactics that are suited to the terrain and emphasize mobility and surprise rather than superior firepower.

It can be said that each war is to a certain extent is unique and unrepeatable as each of them are the product of a specific set of historical circumstances followed by particular social, economic, and political backgrounds. Nevertheless, there is a historical fact that war as a phenomenon appears constantly and, therefore, many theoreticians argue that it needs deeper explanations of war from the point of view that certainly there are some common elements in all of them that apply to all historical times and political-economic societies.

In IR theory, there are many approaches to the reasons for military conflicts, but certainly, there is no single or unified view about the causes of war.

According to the majority of theoreticians, war is nothing else but a large-scale expression of the selfish, violent, and power-seeking nature of humans. In other words, war is a product of instincts and appetites that are natural elements to human individuals. Consequently, war is endless for the reason that human have desires and appetites that are infinite, while the resources to satisfy them are always finite. As a result, the struggle and competition that gives rise to the will inevitably express itself in violence, bloodshed, and war crimes. Some zoologists claim that social aggression is simply biologically programmed and especially in males resulting from territorial and sexual instincts that are found in all species including humans. Technically, war can be fought in order to protect the (home)land, acquire wealth and resources, achieve national glory, advance religious, ideological, or political principles, or establish racial or ethnonational hegemony, etc. For instance, one of the causes of war can be autarky (“self-rule”) – the principle of economic self-sufficiency which can result either in colonial expansion or a withdrawal from international trade. Nevertheless, in all of these cases, war provides a necessary and inevitable framework for aggressive behavior that is hard-wired in human nature.

Others, like neo-realists, are claiming that the regular happening of war in history is a result of the anarchic structure of the IR system. For them, war is an enduring feature of IR and world affairs. The possibility of war stems from the inescapable dynamics of power politics. As states pursue their own national interest they will inevitably come into conflict with one another. Nevertheless, neo-realists claim that violent power politics is something real and natural. Moreover, the state’s egoism and rivalry between and among political actors are inherent tendencies within human nature toward self-seeking, competition, and aggression. From a neo-realistic point of view, the international system is, in fact, anarchic, and, therefore, (nation)states are simply forced to rely on self-help for the sake to achieve national survival and security. The common viewpoint by the neo-realists is that the states can be stable and secured only by the acquisition of military power which means a strong likelihood of war. The crucial factor distinguishing between war and peace is the balance of power. In principle, states will avoid war if they calculate that their chances of victory are slim. Furthermore, decisions about peace and war are made through the more profound analysis of a cost-benefit in which national self-interest may dictate either the use of war or its avoidance. Nevertheless, neo-realists claim that states that wish to preserve peace must, therefore, be prepared for warfare as in this way they hope to deter potential aggressors and prevent any other state or coalition of states from achieving a position of regional predominance or global hegemony (for instance, the British traditional policy toward continental Europe).

The third group argues that war is resulting from the political construction of states and ideologies which they are expressing in the international arena. For instance, the liberals thought that in the 19th century, aristocratic states had been aggressive contrary to those states with the republican (democratic) political system due to the martial inclinations of their ruling class. For the neo-liberals, peace is natural, but by no means an inevitable, condition for IR. War arises from three sets of circumstances and each of which is avoidable:

  1. State egoism in the context of anarchy may lead to conflict and a possibility of war. The anarchy in IR can and should be replaced by an international rule of law, achieved through the construction of supranational bodies (for instance, the OUN).
  2. War is often linked to economic nationalism and autarky – the quest for economic self-sufficiency (as a result, it is expected to conflict with one another). Peace can be in this case achieved through free trade and other forms of economic interdependence which may make war economically costly that it becomes unthinkable.
  3. The deposition of a state towards war or peace is crucially determined by its constitutional character. Non-democratic authoritarian states tend to be militaristic and expansionist, accustomed to the use of force in order to achieve both domestic and foreign goals. Contrary, as they claim, democratic states are more peaceful, at least in their relations with other democratic states. However, the neo-liberals forget the historical link between inner political democracy and external military imperialism (for instance, the case of the UK which in 1900 was the greatest imperialistic state in the world and probably history).

In the 1930s, it was almost a common opinion that Nazi-fascist states of extremely authoritarian political regimes have been aggressive. The Marxist political philosophy in explaining war primarily in economic terms and argues that states with capitalistic social-economic order are driven to aggression (imperialism) for the real reason of their uncompromised economic competition for control over the markets, while, contrary, socialist states have been relating to each other peacefully. For Marxists, WWI was an imperialistic war fought in pursuit of colonial gains in Africa and elsewhere. The origins of modern war can be traced back to the capitalistic economic system. War is the pursuit of economic advantage by other means. By Marxists, socialist movements are presented as anti-war or even of pacifist orientation being shaped by a commitment to internationalism that means cooperation and peace but not confrontation and war. The world’s most powerful capitalistic states use war, directly or indirectly, for the sake to defend or expand their global economies and political interests. Therefore, war is closely associated in modern (capitalistic) times with imperialism and hegemony. As a suggestion, long-time peace can be built only by a radical redistribution of global power. The Marxist conclusion during the Cold War was that global socialism was bringing global peace, prosperity, and cooperation between different nations, groups, states, etc. Furthermore, for them, justice in domestic social relations was bringing peace in the international arena. Finally, for the Marxists, economic class exploitation followed by imperialistic cross-sea colonialism was bringing global conflicts and wars.

However, liberals believe that the constitutional and governmental political structure of the states inclines some of them toward aggression while others toward peaceful cohabitation. They shared an idea that the states with democratic political arrangements do not go to war against one another, as is implied by the so-called Democratic Peace Thesis. By contrast, the liberals argue that authoritarian states are inclined towards militarism and warfare for the reason that such political regimes are heavily dependent on the armed forces to keep inner political and social order in the absence of the democratic process of elected representatives of the people and through the need to subdue subordinate national and ethnic groups. For instance, communist states are aggressive for the reason of their undemocratic totalitarian political and economic organization followed by their universalist ideology. Contrary, liberal democracies exist peacefully as a result of their economic interdependence with each other, and the constraints of democracy on the use of force by the state’s authorities. From the empirical standpoint, the liberals so far have the better of this argument as there are few cases of democracies that have been going to war with each other. However, historically, the greatest and most violent imperialists and exploiters of colonies were exactly the liberal democracies which produced numerous examples of war crimes, exterminations of ethnic groups, or direct support of dictatorial regimes abroad. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of militarism, either in quasi-democratic (the USA) or authoritarian (North Korea) political systems, is usually leading to a glorification of armed forces, belief in heroism and self-sacrifice, and the recognition of war as not only a legitimate instrument of foreign policy to protect national interest but as well as an expression of national patriotism.

The branch of political science theoreticians – social constructivists, place special emphasis on cultural and ideological factors which are most influential on the process of making war. A view on war, politics, and peace by the feminist movement is very unique and new. Feminists adopted a gender perspective on war, politics, and peace as they claim that wars historically, and in fact, are fought between males. However, they forgot to take into consideration several important cases of female warmongering like the former US Secretaries of State Madeline Albright and Hillary Clinton, mystical Amazon female warriors, or the British PM Margaret Thatcher. Nevertheless, the feminists claim that the origins of war are the warlike nature of males and the institution of patriarchy they created. Contrarily, there are allegedly close associations between women and peace based on the natural peacefulness of women and on the “fact” that women’s experience of the world encourages stress on human connectedness and cooperation. In other words, the image of international politics as conflict-ridden and prone to violence reflects masculinist assumptions about self-interest, competition, and the quest for domination.

Critical theorists like Noam Chomsky have been showing a particular interest in the concept and features of hegemonic war. They argue that the global Great Powers use war either directly or indirectly for two practical reasons: 1) to defend, or 2) to expand their worldwide political or economic interests. Consequently, according to them, great wars are associated with the state’s hegemony projects, while global peace is going to be built up only by the restructuring of IR and the international system of Great Powers. A UK academic and IR theorist Mary Kaldor in her book New Wars and Old Wars (2006) claims that there is a direct link between new types of war after 1990 to the crisis in state authority due to the impact of privatization and globalization. There are violent fights for the sake to obtain either access to or control of the state, state authorities, and institutions which are leading to huge violations of human rights in many cases carried out in the name of identity and mainly have been pointed against civilians and their rights. Another feature of the post-Cold War armed conflicts across the world is asymmetrical warfare which is a war fought between two opposite sides but with clearly unequal levels of military, economic, and technological power and potential. In principle, but not necessary, in such kinds of wars, warfare strategies tend to be adapted to the needs of the weak. Many contemporary wars are caused by insurgency – an armed uprising which is involving irregular soldiers with the final political goal to overthrow the established and usually legitimate regime. Furthermore, contemporary so-cold “new” wars have several common features:

  • 1) They tend to be civil wars rather than wars between the states.
  • 2) The issue of identity is generally very prominent and it can be even the chief cause of the conflict.
  • 3) “New” wars are asymmetrical as they are often fought between unequal sides.
  • 4) The distinction between military and civilians is disappearing.
  • 5) “New” wars in many cases are more barbaric compared to “old” wars as clearly was shown in the 1990s with the case of the violent destruction of ex-Yugoslavia especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina and South Serbian Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metochia where in 1996−1999 the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army sponsored by the US Clinton-Albright Administration took up an armed uprising against Serbia’s authorities and institutions for the sake to separate the province from the rest of Serbia and proclaim independence that happened in February 2008.

Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirovic

Ex-University Professor

Research Fellow at Centre for Geostrategic Studies

Belgrade, Serbia




good for business....


War profiteers are a sign of a profoundly sick society

By Caitlin Johnstone


“War is good for business.” So reads a quote from an arms industry executive in a recent Reuters article titled “At London arms fair, global war fears are good for business” about Europe’s biggest arms show, the biennial Defence and Security Equipment International. You will probably be unsurprised to learn that Reuters does not name the war profiteer whose quote inspired their headline.

The article describes the way the war in Ukraine and brinkmanship in Taiwan is leading to surging profits for the military industrial complex, with the UK doubling its arms exports in 2022 and worldwide military spending expected to continue to rise by four percent each year for the next five years. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, European military spending rose 13 percent in 2022 alone, bringing total global spending to an all-time high of $2.24 trillion.

“We are extremely busy,” an exaltant head of sales at an armoured steel company tells Reuters.

War is good for business, and it’s expected to get even better. The world’s largest military contractor Lockheed Martin saw its stock rise by a whopping 37 percent last year — helped along by taxpayer-sponsored stock buybacks — and in a report titled “Lockheed Martin: Huge Growth Ahead”, an investment analyst for AlmaStreet Capital predicted last month that Lockheed’s massive profits will only continue to climb. Calling the escalated geopolitical tensions in the current political atmosphere “the most favourable condition that Lockheed Martin could possibly operate under,” the article’s author writes the following:

“Governments worldwide are increasing their budget for defence and security under this heightened geopolitical tensions worldwide. The US government is not an exception. As the largest contractor to the US government, Lockheed Martin is bound to be the biggest beneficiary of the increased defence budget. Given that the company already reached approximately 8% of YoY net sales growth in 2Q23, I believe escalating geopolitical tensions along with easing macroeconomic conditions would allow Lockheed Martin to soon achieve double-digit growth in net sales by the end of the year.”

So it’s no wonder that Lockheed CEO James Taiclet called the most recent hike in the US military budget “as good an outcome as our industry or our company could ask for.” There are vast fortunes riding on governments equipping themselves to kill large numbers of human beings.

There’s a popular quote, “It is no measure of health to be well-adjusted to a profoundly sick society,” commonly attributed to Jiddu Krishnamurti but most likely coined by Kurt Vonnegut’s son Mark. Whenever I read reports like this about corporations raking in billions from death, suffering, and extremely dangerous acts of brinkmanship between military powers, I always find that phrase “a profoundly sick society” rattling around in my head.

It’s hard to imagine a society sicker than one in which corporations are not only allowed to profit from war and militarism, but to actually push for more of it using campaign donationslobbying, and the funding of influential warmongering think tanks. It’s no less evil than if corporations were allowed to slaughter foreigners like livestock and sell their body parts for profit at industrial scale; the only thing that’s different is the payment plan. And yet the people who do this are celebrated as respected job creators instead of thrown into cages like the monsters they are.

This is not the sort of civilisation we should strive to be well-adjusted to. It is no sign of health to be well-adjusted to a society in which someone can become a billionaire selling weapons of mass murder after lobbying the government to perpetrate those murders. It is no sign of health to be well-adjusted to a society in which the military industrial complex launders information through the media to promote its deadly products and agendas. It is no sign of health to be well-adjusted to a society in which war profiteering corporations can reap massive quarterly profits in a proxy war that was provoked by the west while pouring fortunes into think tanks which helped manufacture consent for those provocations and which spin the west’s actions in a positive light for the media.

If this society could give rise to something so depraved as the military industrial complex, then it is not the sort of society we should seek to blend in with. This is the sort of society we should want to stick out like a sore thumb in. The sort of society in which we should be swimming against the current when everyone else is swimming with it. The sort of society in which we say a resounding NO to things that everyone else is saying yes to.

This society has failed as spectacularly as anything can possibly fail. We live in a mind-controlled dystopia where war profiteers get to steer public policy, where the entire biosphere is being fed into the wood chipper of global capitalism while we rapidly accelerate toward nuclear armageddon. This is the most insane civilisation anyone could possibly design. We should seek dissent and divergence from it to the fullest extent possible.


First published by Caitlin Johnstone from Caitlin’s Newsletter September 20, 2023