Saturday 23rd of November 2019

planet earth...

uluru

The earth is a flexible fluid planet... I mean it is made of liquid and I don't mean the oceans. I am referring to what lies below the thin crusty surface. One should realise that with a diameter of nearly 13,000 kilometres, the continental crust is only about 40 kilometres thick on average while the oceanic crust is barely 7 kilometres thick on average. The hot liquid magma below is never far from the surface. Gravity holds the earth firmly as a liquid ball with a crust.


Most earthquakes happen at the junction between oceanic crust and continental crust — especially around the Pacific Ocean.

There is not a day without a few earthquakes — of 5 or more on the Richter scale — on the Pacific rim, often referred to as the Ring of Fire.

Most of the active volcanoes on earth are also in this region. From Chile to New Guinea, Indonesia and Japan, there is always rumble and spew. Continental plates and oceanic plates grind atop each other and move...

These days, we guess with a certain accuracy, that the centre of the earth would mostly be molten iron, giving the planet its magnetic field. We know the weight of the planet because of its orbit (size, position and timing) around the sun... In the 1930s, there were still some scientific assumption that the centre of the earth was made of pure molten gold. The fools?... Who knows... But their idea of the thickness of the crust was wrong by a zillion kilometres... Science can be wrong, but science spends a lot of time working about being correct.

So, these days, we know by precise scientific measurement and analysis that oceanic floors are no older than 150 million years. They renew themselves by pushing under the continental plates, while continental plates go back to the formation of planet, about 4.6 billion years ago.
The continental plates have had some upheavals though. Part of their surface has been covered by seas, folded, twisted, raised, broken, distorted and covered up with newer rocks.

For example Uluru, the extraordinary rock formation at the centre of Australia (see picture at top), a "single piece of rock" jutting more than three hundred metres up in the middle of a massive flat plain, is about 500 million years old... The "sandstone" of Uluru was actually agglomerated about 600 millions years ago and the position that the rock — a piece from this thus-formed arkose bed has been tilted 85 degrees from horizontal by earth movements — is thus about 500 million years. Since then, the rocks pieces around have been covered. Uluru is the last piece (only) standing above the plain and Uluru has been eroding slowly ever since... Kata Juta (the Olgas) located 30 kilometres from Uluru, are of a different make up. Pudding stone.

Humans feel a certain mysticism about Uluru as if time forgot a piece of puzzle there, in the middle of nowhere. But the rocky nature of the rock making Uluru is complex and comes from eroded particles of older mountain ranges (Quartz, feldspar, granite, epidote and clay) that were re-glued together to form the "newer" arkose layer (600 million years ago).

So, there has been a few scientific theories proposed to explain the astonishing age difference between see floor and continental plates.

One theory — the least likely — postulates that primordial earth was actually smaller, denser per volume but as it "aged", there was a quick atomic decay from heavy elements to lighter more stable elements. This would have made it expand. As it expanded, the primordial crust cracked (continental plates). Not covering the entire planet anymore, a thinner crust formed (sea floors) — a crust that regenerate due to the magma under currents below it....

Another theory would suggest that large bits of the original crust sunk into the molten magma early in the life of the planet to be "re-molten" and only a few original portions remain on the surface, while eventually a newer thinner crust formed (sea floors) — a crust that regenerate due to the magma under currents...

Another theory would be that the earth gained weight by collecting space "junk" left on its formational orbit (part of the sun's creation — see Laplace) after having primordially "congealed". The "continental" crust may have formed sometimes before the earth was "complete". As the earth "expanded" thus the original crust cracked and a secondary thinner crust formed below — a crust that regenerate due to the magma under currents....

There is a possibility that these theories combine to some extent... By the study of other planets and their satellites we will learn more with precision about this early formation — all due to the sun hydrogen nuclear formation and... gravity.

Soon after the earth's fiery beginning, oxygen and hydrogen combined to produce an enormous cloud of steam around the planet, possible nearly 25,000 kilometres thick. There would also have been some fiery bits of matter, orbiting the planet still being formatted. Gravity and cooling pulled this steam down to form the oceans. All this process took at least one billion years before the cooling had reduced enough to foster life on earth — in the quite warm ocean.

We know that deep oceanic hot vents (some up to 400 degrees Celsius) support some amazing quantities of life-forms in the depth of the oceans, while the deep cooler part have far less living creatures.

By then, 3.6 billions years ago, the original remaining crust, a super continent already smaller to about 33 per cent of the entire surface of the planet, broke up into two main parts — that we call Pangea and Gondwana. Over the next three billion years, more cracks appeared, and bits were shoved and pushed by the under-currents of the magma, eventually leading to the present position of the original crust-remains — the continents as we know them.

But continents and bits of continents are still on the move and/or crack. Sea floor are still on the move and/or crack. The surface of the planet is not fixed.

There was a geological time when the south pole axis would have been somewhere on the Australian continent when it was part of Gondwana. Not because the axis was in a different place (though the axis wobbles like that of a top) but the position of combined continents was different. The Australian plate moves 7 centimetres northward every year...

It took 45 million years for Australia to occupy its present position after having been the last major continental bit to break off from Antarctica...

India, the subcontinent, is actually a wedge-shaped part of Antarctica that shot through at geological warp speed northward about 90 million years ago and hit the larger remaining part of Pangea (Europe-Asian continental plate) and is still moving, pushing up the Himalayas mountain chain... Indonesia and New Guinea are mostly part of the sea floor raised by Australian plate moving northward.

The ocean floors move quite rapidly considering that none is older than 150 million years.

For example, the floor of the Atlantic ocean is cracked in the middle and either side of this crack, the sea floor, pushed away by new spurted material from below, moves to slide back under the continental plates of Africa/Europe and America. Iceland sits atop the mid-Atlantic ridge. The process from the middle to the side is approximately 75 million years for the Atlantic floor.

Meanwhile the study of this sea-floor process also tells us that from time to time, frequently in geological timeframe, the axis of the earth's magnetic field flips. The magnetic north pole becomes the magnetic south pole... This is actually recorded in the iron particles of the see floor which, like on the tape of a recording machine, show very specific orientation according to the flips. According to estimates, we are due for such a flip between now and the next thousand years.

One of the puzzling aspect is the Pacific oceanic floor which does not show a middle ridge where the oceanic floor is being "replenished". So, what can we make of the "crack-less" Pacific floor?

Well, the study of the Hawaiian ridge (which is not a crack but is a ridge formed by a "hot-spot") can tell us that this thin sea floor is moving "rapidly" in a northerly direction rather than split into east and west direction (like the Atlantic sea floor). The plate is noticeably cracking at the borders with the Nazca plate (and Cocos sub-plate) and also with the Antarctic plate.

The Antarctic is itself surrounded by a massive crack, the replenishment of which is creating the sea-floor of the southern ocean and possibly pushing the Australian plate northward too. The scientific "data" for these specific dynamics are still iffy though the process is fairly clear... The currents of the magma are not yet "mapped"... regular Earthquakes (of more than 7 on the Richter scale) near Macquarie Island and possibly up to new Zealand are part of this southerly cracking.

The rift Valley in Africa is an area where the African continent is splitting slowly without too much earthquake activity there, but possibly creating some disturbances somewhere else such as with the Iranian sub-plate. Resonance science is very fascinating. It explains that an event may happen somewhere but its effects are amplified somewhere else, a bit like sound in a trumpet.

In the middle of the Pacific Oceanic floor, Hawaii is sitting on top of a "hot spot" that is creating the Hawaiian Ridge...

We know that there is many "hot spots" on the planet. Hot spots are basically "static in position" magma pressure-points that break holes in the continental plates or the sea-floor, when the magma is pushing up, coming to or near the surface.

For example there was (is — presently in the south of Victoria) a hot spot along the Great Dividing Range of Australia. As the continental plate of Australia slid on top of this hot spot, this hot spot created volcanoes from the Atherton Tableland (in Queensland), via the Warrabungles (in New South Wales) to the more recent Swan Hill area in Victoria, while the plate was (is) moving northward. A recent earth tremor in the later region is a reminder of the magma below.

Opposite to the ocean ridges, we have "trenches"... These are deep (up to 10 kilometres) juncture between continents and sea-floors where the sea floor is pushed under a continental plate and "get re-molten" into magma by the sheer heat from below...

The 2004 Indonesian earthquake (Java Trench) and the recent 2011 Japanese earthquake (Japan Trench — a small part of a greater trench) are both due to a sea-floor grinding under a continental plate or a piece of raised sea-floor... When the pressures of the friction between overlapping sea floor or plates are not released by smaller tremors, this eventually leads to much larger earthquakes.

The Indonesian Earthquake for example moved the island of Nicobar by at least 30 metres away from its former position in just a short moment. meaning that not only the island moved but an entire sea floor around it.

In the early human days (the good old days of misunderstanding), all this rattle of the earth was soon aligned with gods of this and that... Volcanoes became an image for hell, a vision for Dante's inferno and the blue sky above became the image of paradise, using the light coming through clouds, as stairways to heaven... The earth was a temporary punishment on which one survived waiting for the gods deciding which would be our next place. Hell or the eternal promise land?... Silly.

Meanwhile as the continents moved, life on the land of the planet started around 450 million years ago. The first plants and creatures from the oceans adapted to the drier conditions, though, to this day, NO LIFE CAN SURVIVE WITHOUT WATER. Some would agree that some nasty little bug can survive a long time in waterless condition but none can reproduce nor develop without water. Human life itself starts in the watery sack of the womb and as soon as we're born we need to replenish our water content (about 75 per cent of our body). Sodium chloride (salt) plays also a big part in the process.

Evolution happened. Evolution can only be denied by unscientific annoying morons.

And evolution continued in isolation after continents were split. For example, very specific traces of life in India in South America, Africa, Antarctica and Australia are all remnants from the greater Gondwana super continent. Life, both flora and fauna on Pangea's surface developed with major differences. Gondwana means the "land of the Gonds", a tribe on the Indian subcontinent that live in a place where many of these ancient traces (fossils) have been found. When Gondwana broke up, evolution carried on, from the same stock in isolation. In South America, the new line of mammals that had evolved became opossums and in Australia, the line became the marsupials including the possums and kangaroos. The possum lineage in Africa was wiped out by other mammal species coming from the north.

Evolution is related to many factors, from genetics to availability of food and water... Thus the surface of the earth itself was modified by life, like the sea and the atmosphere before had been modified by life... Till about 1 billion years ago, the oxygen in the atmosphere was mostly released by life forming in the sea, itself combining with CARBON and other trace elements such as phosphorus. These of course were happening in complex processes but the general picture is correct.

With water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air, eventually plants could colonise the bare earth. The dynamics of evolution and extinction are well known. The first step of life on land are quite well-known... From the early cooksonia to the club mosses, from the lungfishes to the tetrapods... and so on... Millions of new species evolved, some disappeared.

Catastrophic extinction events happened. We know that coal seams are the accumulated decomposing remains of huge forests. We know that oil is the decomposing remain from life in the sea that died in massive numbers. We know that shale oil is on par, in a different environment. Not much is static.

We also know that there has been changes in the climate... These changes are written in the rocks, in the ice sheets, in the observation of the atmosphere itself. Some of these climate change may have been related to various causes, from the earth's impacts with asteroids. impacts which still happen today.

Wolf Creek Crater (about 2 million years ago, near the Kimberley region of WA, Australia) is a stark reminder of such collision. A greater collision happened about 130 million years ago and all that remains is Gosse's Bluff in the centre of Australia. Some other impact is often claimed to be the reason for the extinction of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago, but one has to realise that this extinction took about one million years to be complete. It only took 5,000 years for the mammoths to become extinct. It took "a hundred years" for the dodo to become extinct. It took 20 years to delete the Tasmanian Tiger from the earth. It took one hunting season to eliminate the American passenger pigeon, once flocking in the millions...

As I have often stated here, extinctions are often the results of several converging causes. From hunting by other species, such as introduced cats nearly wiping out the kakapo parrot, to a genetic inability to adapt to change. For the mammoths, dramatic climate change about 12,000 years ago placed a critical pressure on their food supply and hunting by humans converged to wipe them out. On a small promontory that became an island off the Russian coast when the sea rose, mammoth managed to survive for another 5,000 years in isolation. Due to the limited food supply, they became quite smaller — so small that scientists thought for a while that their remains were those from a different species.

Despite the scientific analysis and knowledge we presently have of the dynamic of the earth and of the greater space, which is amazingly accurate if one takes the time to study this fantastic body of work, — including genetics — we are still in the clutches of idiotic illusions with rituals and beliefs that have nothing to do with knowing but with ruling. The grand priest of business and those of religion prefer we lick their boots rather than know what we're doing. It's good for the coffers of business — bankers and miners — and for the collection plates of the morality spruikers — from popes and rabbis to imams.
Meanwhile the planet does not care what we think, but it will react to what we do...

Scientists have made mistakes in the past, mainly due to limited knowledge. Priests have been mistaken from the beginning.

As knowledge increases, "theoritization" is getting mightily precise. Trends, numbers, atoms, quarks, chemistry, nuclear physics — most happened in the last one hundred years. The moralisationers have not caught up...

Even eighty years ago, much of what "earth" science knows now, was on the right track but still far from the mark. More precise observation and repeat of processes have furthered our knowledge considerably... For example, the continental drift theory was in its infancy and vague in the details back then 1930s. we know much more about the details now. We know the snug pieces of the puzzle. It takes bright minds to recreate the processes of the past. Darwin was one those minds to realise the simplicity and complexity of evolution. Laplace was one of those minds to postulate on planetary formation and the existence of black holes. Einstein followed and developed a complex mathematical model of relativity.

Without this fantastic knowledge we would not have mobile phones. Nor would we be able to have IVF, organ transplant and Genetic Manipulation. Mining would be a useless task.

Climate change theory comes from an enormous amount of detailed research and the theory sticks to scrutiny. The denialists, helped by loopy shock jocks, many stupid journos and idiotic politicians, either have no working theory nor have they any knowledge of the details and of the facts. They just go on and on and on, in an emotional power trip — not in a scientific way... The non-"science" from a few denialists like Lord Monckton and Ian Plimer does not stack up against any of the details and the facts...

These people are plainly wrong and dangerously deliberately wrong by sending the thinking of the masses — via self-appointed ignoramus gurus like Penberthy, Andrew Bolt and Tony Abbott — on the wrong tracks, leading to imbecilic erroneous conclusions.

We cannot afford their lunacy... We cannot pander to their idiocy.

It's a major battle that has to be won by science, despite scientists being ill-equipped to fight smart-arsed stupid spruikers... Tony Abbott should be ashamed of himself...

May Tony have nightmares about his personal idiocy and may someone prick his comfortable shit-brains till they explode or implode... I don't care which.

 

This article was written from memory, dipping into Gus' own knowledge, gathered over many years. It is only a short digest of gus's personal information on earth sciences in which the science of climate change is presently the most challenging information for humans. The science does not predict the future precisely, but it only gives trends — trends that should frighten the pants off us.

Pass it on to anyone, especially pass it on to the deliberately ignoramus scribes — the journalists with a penchant for controversy with no solid basis.

gosse's bluff and other wonder

gosse's bluff

Gosse's Bluff is not the crater rim from a meteorite impact. It is the central splash-back from a meteor impact. The crater rim would have been another 30 kilometres from the centre. Note: the circular centre of Gosse's Bluff is about 5 kilometres in diameter. The impact was massive. The spash-back comes from much deeper layer in the rock strata around it. The impact was arounf 130 million years ago.

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Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) (English pronunciation: /laˈplas/) was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the so-called Bayesian interpretation of probability was mainly developed by Laplace.[1]

He formulated Laplace's equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics, a field that he took a leading role in forming. The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is also named after him.

He restated and developed the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system and was one of the first scientists to postulate the existence of black holes and the notion of gravitational collapse.

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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution); (26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794); (French pronunciation: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje]), the "father of modern chemistry",[1] was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology.[2] He found and termed both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), helped construct the metric system, put together the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound.[3] He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.

He was an administrator of the "Ferme Générale" and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling watered-down tobacco, and of other crimes, and was guillotined.[4][5]

 

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Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier's Law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect.[1]


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Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian.

His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.

Widely regarded as one of the most influential people in human history, Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[7] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Newton was also highly religious. He was an unorthodox Christian, and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics, the subjects he is mainly associated with. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism, fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders.


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Albert Einstein (play /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/;German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.[2][3] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[4] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.[5]

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein taught physics at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[5][6] His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.[7]

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Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM, FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.[1] In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation. This work was done at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances".[2]

Rutherford performed his most famous work after he had moved to the U.K. in 1907 and was already a Nobel laureate. In 1911, he postulated that atoms have their positive charge concentrated in a very small nucleus,[3] and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering in his gold foil experiment. He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he also discovered (and named) the proton.[4] This led to the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner, performed by two students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, in 1932.

After his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical element rutherfordium (element 104) was named for him in 1997.

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The geologic time scale provides a system of chronologic measurement relating stratigraphy to time that is used by geologists, paleontologists and other earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. The table of geologic time spans presented here agrees with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, and uses the standard color codes of the United States Geological Survey.

Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that the Earth is about 4.570 billion years old. The geological or deep time of Earth's past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Different spans of time on the time scale are usually delimited by major geological or paleontological events, such as mass extinctions. For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Paleogene period is defined by the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which marked the demise of the dinosaurs and of many marine species. Older periods which predate the reliable fossil record are defined by absolute age.

Each era on the scale is separated from the next by a major event or change.

 

times

 

The next period in which humanity features is the Anthropocene

First, how have the actions of humans altered the course of Earth’s deep history? The answers boil down to the unprecedented rise in human numbers since the early nineteenth century—from under a billion then to over six billion now, set to be nine billion or more by midcentury. This population growth is intimately linked with massive expansion in the use of fossil fuels, which powered the Industrial Revolution, and allowed the mechanization of agriculture that enabled those additional billions to be fed.
The most plainly visible physical effects of this on the landscape—the growth of the world’s megacities, for instance—may in some ways be the most transient. In such “terraforming”, humans have brought about a roughly order-of-magnitude increase in the long-term rate of erosion and sedimentation (8, 9). This is a remarkable, though perhaps short-lived, sedimentary signal. If construction stops or slows, for whatever reason, then natural geomorphologic processes will rapidly re-establish themselves, as shown by the fate of “lost” cities such as Angkor in Cambodia.
Far more profound are the chemical and biological effects of global human activity.

 

crops

 

 

Tony Abbott is a little prick, in this company...

sea floors...

continental drift

In the image above, created on top of an earquake map from july 26 2011 from the Seismic Monitor, I have placed crude arrows to indicate movements of sea floors — and of some continents. It's not precise, as there are also many sub-cracks and other sub-movements. The terms Pangea and Gondwana only refer to the continents in these region not the sea floors. I have also indicated the northward movement of Australia at 7 centimetres per year or 70 kilometres in one million years or 3150 kilometres roughly since breaking up from Antarctica 45 million years ago... The speed may have varied and these magnitudes are only given to show the intensity of the move. More accurate figures exist in goephysicists' briefcase.

I have also pinpointed Hawaii and Nicobar, two places mentioned in the article at top. Note I could also have mentioned the Easter Island hot spot which created the Sala y Gómez Ridge as the sea floor moved northward.

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The position of the continents strongly influences the general climatic patterns in various ways. For example Antarctica, despite being covered with massive amount of ice is the "driest continent on earth". The weather of Australia and south of Australia is strongly influenced by a circumnavigating air current around Antarctica above an uninterupted ocean (formed by the sea floor crack around Antarctica). It is an approximate rule of thumb that it takes one extra hour for a jet to fly from Sydney to Perth than from Perth to Sydney... This is due to "jet streams" and air current part of this major Antarctic air current.

In the northern hemisphere — a place with the same latitude as the sea south of Cape Horn (56 degree south) — such as Moscow (56 degree north) can enjoy hot warm summer due to continental influences. Last summer Moscow had a few days at 39 degrees Celsius, breaking temperature records and being an indication of global warming. Cape Horn maximum temperature ever recorded was 22 degree Celsius in April last year.

Not so strangely, the notice of recent increase in the "wetting" of Antarctica is a strong indication of global warming. This wetting is strongly due to increase in CO2 in the atmosphere.

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In the picture below I have selected a piece of sea floor from google maps (Cape of Good Hope) showing how the "stretch marks" typically indicate a opening break in the sea floor. As well as the stretch northward and southward, the break also creates "canyons" along displacement faultlines like on a cracked lip.

sea floor

watery space...

We don't think of the universe as a terribly wet place, but in fact, there's water out in space pretty much everywhere you look. A few billion years ago, Mars was awash in the stuff, with rivers scouring twisted channels en route to ancient seas. The Solar System from Jupiter outward would be an interplanetary water park if most of the H2O out there weren't frozen. Saturn's rings are made mostly of trillions of chunks of ice. The comets are mostly ice. So is Pluto. Jupiter's moon Europa has a thick shell of ice surrounding a salty ocean, kept warm by the little world's internal heat. Saturn's moon Eceladus spews its own subsurface water into space in titanic geysers that form a ring of vapor that surrounds Saturn itself. Uranus and Neptune are known to planetary scientists simply as "ice giants."

And it doesn't stop in our own solar system. Water — solid, liquid or vaporous — has been turning up for years, all over the cosmos. So it takes a pretty impressive discovery to put space water in the headlines. But "impressive" may be an understatement for what two international teams of astronomers have turned up. Peering out to the very edges of the visible universe, both groups have detected a cloud of water vapor weighing in at a mind-bending 140 trillion times the mass of the world's oceans, swirling around a giant black hole 20 billion times the mass of the Sun


Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2085298,00.html#ixzz1TIgSpaDj

see top article

of earliest life on earth...

Geological Team Lays Claim to Oldest Known Fossils


By

A team of Australian and British geologists have discovered fossilized, single-cell organisms that are 3.4 billion years old and that the scientists say are the oldest known fossils on earth.

Their assertion, if sustained, confirms the view that life evolved on earth surprisingly soon after the Late Heavy Bombardment, a reign of terror in which waves of asteroids slammed into the primitive planet, heating the surface to molten rock and boiling the oceans into an incandescent mist. The bombardment, which ended around 3.85 billion years ago, would have sterilized the earth’s surface of any incipient life. It is also a new volley in a long-running conflict over who has found the oldest fossil.

The new microfossils are described in Sunday’s issue of Nature Geoscience by a team led by David Wacey of the University of Western Australia and Martin D. Brasier of the University of Oxford. The fossils were found in sandstone at the base of the Strelley Pool rock formation in Western Australia.

The sandstone, 3.4 billion years ago, was a beach on one of the few islands that had started to appear above the ocean’s surface. Conditions were very different from those of today. The moon orbited far closer to earth, raising huge tides. The atmosphere was full methane, since plants had not yet evolved to provide oxygen, and greenhouse warming from the methane had heated the oceans to the temperature of a hot bath.

It was in these conditions, the geologists believe, that organisms resembling today’s bacteria lived in the crevices between the pebbles on the beach. Examining thin slices of rock under the microscope, they have found structures that look like living cells, some in clusters that seem to show cell division.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/22/science/earth/22fossil.html?hp=&pagewanted=print

 

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Gus: the "oldest" fossil known is always a point of controversy as already, by the 1980s, fossils of stromatolites were claimed to be as old as 3500 million years (3.5 billion). These were studied in the region of "North Pole", Western Australia. Similar aged stromatolite fossils were also found in Zimbabwe. "North Pole" is so comically named as it is possibly the hottest place in Australia... Yet the stones from this place are already first crust metamorphic rocks... younger than the rocks below... Stromatolites formed in shallow seas and some livr specimen can still be found in Shark Bay, Western Australia... It could be said that Stromatolites are the longest surviving form of life, on this planet...

 

see picture at top and article below it...

earthquake in washington

 

WASHINGTON (AP) — Nuclear plants from North Carolina to Michigan are under increased scrutiny after a 5.8 magnitude earthquake rocked the East Coast.

Twelve nuclear plants declared an "unusual event," the lowest level of emergency, after Tuesday's earthquake, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission said. Virginia's North Anna Power Station, about 13 miles from the epicenter, issued an alert, the next highest emergency level. The quake was centered 40 miles northwest of Richmond.

Two nuclear reactors at North Anna were automatically taken off line by safety systems. No damage was reported at the plant, which is being powered by emergency diesel generators.


Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2090135,00.html#ixzz1VuUEcTfE

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see picture at top and articles below it... pass it on to your friends, relatives and enemies... — especially Alan Jones...

the next is coming...

OAKLAND, Calif. (AP) — A small earthquake has shaken the San Francisco Bay area.

The U.S. Geological Service says a magnitude 3.6 earthquake struck at about 11:36 p.m. PDT on Tuesday. The quake was centered about six miles southeast of Oakland and was also felt by people across the bay in San Francisco.

USGS geophysicist Carrie Ann Bedwell says the magnitude of the temblor carries little risk of damage.

The quake comes at the end of a day in which a magnitude 5.8 earthquake jolted much of the eastern United States, the strongest to hit that region in decades.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2011/08/24/us/AP-US-California-Earthquake.html?hp

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WASHINGTON (AP) — Nuclear plants from North Carolina to Michigan are under increased scrutiny after a 5.8 magnitude earthquake rocked the East Coast.

Twelve nuclear plants declared an "unusual event," the lowest level of emergency, after Tuesday's earthquake, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission said. Virginia's North Anna Power Station, about 13 miles from the epicenter, issued an alert, the next highest emergency level. The quake was centered 40 miles northwest of Richmond.

Two nuclear reactors at North Anna were automatically taken off line by safety systems. No damage was reported at the plant, which is being powered by emergency diesel generators.


Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2090135,00.html#ixzz1VuUEcTfE

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Humans share the planet with as many as 8.7 million different forms of life, according to what is being billed as the most accurate estimate yet of life on Earth.

Researchers who have analysed the hierarchical categorisation of life on Earth to estimate how many undiscovered species exist say the diversity of life is not equally divided between land and ocean. Three-quarters of the 8.7m species – the majority of which are insects – are on land; only one-quarter, 2.2m, are in the deep, even though 70% of the Earth's surface is water.

The study, which is published in the journal PLoS Biology, underlines just how little humans know about what is out there – and which plants and animals will become extinct before scientists can even record their existence.

"Scientists have been working on this question of how many species for so many years," said Dr Camilo Mora of the University of Hawaii and Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The quest was growing increasingly urgent. "We know we are losing species because of human activity, but we can't really appreciate the magnitude of species lost until we know what species are there," he said.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/23/species-earth-estimate-scientists

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see picture at top and articles below it... pass it on to your friends, relatives and enemies... — especially Alan Jones...

hot core...

Earthquakes, explosions and observations of Earth's ever-changing magnetic field are helping scientists open up a new window on the heart of our planet.

When Jules Verne wrote A Journey to the Centre of the Earth over 100 years ago, he imagined a place of glowing crystals and a turbulent sea, complete with prehistoric animals and giant mushrooms.

What was actually beneath our feet was a complete enigma. Even to this day scientists astonishingly know more about the rings of Saturn than they do about the core of our own planet.

But that is beginning to change. "We're at a golden age in terms of the real discovery of the bulk of the deep Earth," says seismologist Professor Rick Aster.

And remarkably, not everything Verne imagined was wrong.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14678002

meanwhile on google earth...

There is a typhoon off the coat of Japan that could be nasty. Just a warning...

 

The post above was posted a 9:32 this morning. I monitor google earth regularly for weather anomalies... Now here is an update. So far it is difficult to find any information about this typhoon but here it is on axiom:

UPDATE: http://www.axiommagazine.jp/2011/09/01/typhoon-approaching-japan/

Over the next two days, a large typhoon is expected to hit main land Japan. Typhoon Talas will bring with it heavy thunderstorms, torrential rain and large waves. The Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) has issued a warning for the inhabitants of Kinki, Tokai and Kanto regions against heavy rain, dangerously high waves and the loosening of earth; which could lead to the collapse of roads and perhaps even buildings.

only skin deep...

moho

Scientists have mapped the boundary globally between the Earth's crust and its mantle - the so-called Moho boundary - in unprecedented detail. They used gravity measurements from the European Space Agency's Goce satellite to model its location. The famous "discontinuity" lies some 10-70km below the surface and marks a sharp change in rock properties. It was first identified by the Croatian geophysicist Andrija Mohorovicic in 1909. He determined the boundary's existence from the distinct behaviour of seismic waves produced by shallow earthquakes. Goce can be used to sense the Moho's depth because it is able to detect subtle variations in the Earth's gravitational field.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17312368

 

See article at top...

arsenic and old lace...

 

Two scientific papers have disproved a claim made by NASA-funded scientists that a new form of bacterial life had been discovered that could thrive on arsenic.

"Contrary to an original report, the new research clearly shows that the bacterium, GFAJ-1, cannot substitute arsenic for phosphorus to survive," said a statement by Science magazine.

Science published the initial study in December 2010, with lead researcher Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a fellow in NASA's astrobiology program, announcing that a new form of life had been scooped from a California lake.

The bacterium in arsenic-rich Mono Lake was said to redefine the building blocks of life, surviving and growing by swapping phosphorus for arsenic in its DNA and cell membranes.

Biologists consider these six elements as necessary for life: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur.

Arsenic is similar to phosphorus but is typically considered poisonous to living organisms.

But the study needed to be confirmed in order to be considered a true discovery, and two separate teams found that the bacterium needed some phosphate to survive and could not fully substitute arsenic to live.

NASA has conducted numerous probes at eastern California's Mono Lake, an unusually salty body of water with high arsenic and mineral levels, as it is likely to reflect conditions under which early life evolved on Earth, or perhaps Mars.

While Wolfe-Simon and colleagues acknowledged that there were very low levels of phosphate within their study samples, they concluded that this was a level of contamination that was insufficient to permit GFAJ to grow.

Two separate Science articles "now reveal that, in fact, her medium did contain enough phosphate contamination to support GFAJ-1's growth," said a statement by the magazine.

One paper was written by Marshall Louis Reaves and colleagues at Princeton University, Rosemary Redfield at the University of British Columbia, and Leonid Kruglyak of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Canadian microbiologist Redfield was among the first outspoken critics of the initial study.

"I don't know whether the authors are just bad scientists or whether they're unscrupulously pushing NASA's 'There's life in outer space!' agenda," wrote Redfield in a blog that ignited the web furore shortly after the paper was first published.

The other paper to refute its findings was written by Tobias Erb and colleagues at the Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich.

Rather than being a new form of life that thrives on arsenic, Science's statement described the bacterium as "a well-adapted extremophile that lives in a high-arsenic environment."

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-07-09/scientists-disprove-arsenic-life-form-claim/4118444

 

read articles from top...

 

be prepared...

I am not a scientist but if I was in earthquake sciences, I would be worried... There has only been two earthquakes of note in the last two days and none above 4.5 on the surface of this planet... What this suggests to me is that there are some powerful tensions building up at the usual key junctures around the rim of fire... I would not be surprised if there is a large earth tremor (7 or above) or more tremors somewhere, say Japan, indonesia and/or the coast of America... within the next two days... I could be wrong... 

 

See picture and article at top...

and the earth trembled...

Big earthquake (7.6) in Costa Rica 8 hours ago....

see articles from top to bottom in this line of blogs...

splitting continent...

The sequence of huge earthquakes that struck off the coast of Sumatra in April may signal the creation of a new tectonic plate boundary.

Scientists give the assessment in this week's Nature journal.

They say their analysis of the tremors - the biggest was a magnitude 8.7 - suggests major changes are taking place on the ocean floor that will eventually split the Indo-Australian plate in two.

It is not something that will happen soon; it could take millions of years.

"This is a process that probably started eight to 10 million years ago, so you can imagine how much longer it will take until we get a classic boundary," said Matthias Delescluse from the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.

Dr Delescluse is an author on one of three scholarly papers in Naturediscussing the 11 April quakes.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19732681

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I have already mentioned this possibie split on this site....

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19732681

new mapping 1000 to 500 million years ago...

Earth is estimated to be around 4.5 billion years old, with life first appearing around 3 billion years ago.

To unravel this incredible history, scientists use a range of different techniques to determine when and where continents moved, how life evolved, how climate changed over time, when our oceans rose and fell, and how land was shaped.

Tectonic plates — the huge, constantly moving slabs of rock that make up the outermost layer of the Earth, the crust — are central to all these studies.

Along with our colleagues, we have published the first whole-Earth plate tectonic map of half-a-billion years of Earth history, from 1,000 million years ago to 520 million years ago.

We now have a map of plate tectonics for the period 1,000-520 million years ago.

read more and see animation:

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-06-27/map-fills-500-million-year-gap-in-...

Much of the records shows that life on earth (in the seas) started before 3.7 billion years ago. Stromatolites show this:

Stromatolites are a major constituent of the fossil record of the first forms of life on earth.[15] The earliest fossils date to 3.7 billion years ago.[6] They peaked about 1.25 billion years ago[13] and subsequently declined in abundance and diversity,[16]so that by the start of the Cambrian they had fallen to 20% of their peak. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victim to grazing creatures (the Cambrian substrate revolution); this theory implies that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago.[17][18][19]

read more:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stromatolite

 

Read from top.