Tuesday 17th of September 2019

5G is mucking up weather predictions...

Forecasters fear 5G wireless technology will muck up weather predictions


A remarkable interagency battle is playing out within the U.S. government over whether plans for the next generation of wireless technology, known as 5G, will threaten accurate weather forecasts—and, if so, how to mitigate the threat. Months of technical studies and debate have only deepened the impasse.

NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) say 5G antennas will blast signals near the frequencies their satellites use to gather critical water vapor data, and could compromise forecasts and science. The agencies are calling for tight limits on stray noise. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which licenses the wireless spectrum for 5G operators in the United States, says those fears are overblown.

Jordan Gerth, a meteorologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, says 5G poses "a clear threat" to weather forecasting, but adds that "the devil is in the details." Attempts to reach a compromise have faltered, and a July workshop organized by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to search for a solution was canceled when federal agencies declined to attend. A series of international meetings beginning next week aims to hammer out global 5G regulations—but forecasters fear U.S. delegates will not argue for strict limits.


5G promises data speeds up to 100 times faster than current 4G networks; it could pave the way for widespread adoption of cutting-edge technologies such as autonomous cars. Already, telecom companies have begun to attach suitcase-size 5G antennas to cellphone towers and rooftops in cities around the world.

The companies want to expand service into additional frequency bands such as one at 24 gigahertz (GHz)—a frequency much higher than those used by existing wireless networks—because they can pack more information into the signals, and because the atmosphere is transparent to signals in the band. But such frequency bands are useful only if companies can blast data at relatively high signal strengths. FCC has proposed allowing noise as high as −20 decibel watts (dBW) in all bands auctioned off so far, including one between 24.25 and 25.25 GHz.

But a nearby frequency is critical for weather forecasters. At about 23.8 GHz, water vapor molecules emit a small amount of radiation—one of the best ways to remotely sense the atmospheric water content that fuels clouds and storms. Because air is transparent at those frequencies, sensors attached to NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System and the European Meteorological Operational satellites can collect data from all levels of the atmosphere, providing a crucial input not just for familiar 7-day weather forecasts, but also for predicting the strength of hurricanes and where they will make landfall. A long-term water vapor record can also help calibrate climate change models, adds Eric Allaix, a meteorologist at Météo-France in Toulouse who leads a World Meteorological Organization committee on radio frequency coordination.


Science magazine.


In Australia, apart from the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and its array of computers, we have the Kookaburras (image at top) as an indicator of incoming weather. Should these laughing jackasses laugh (calling their mates — not laughing at us we think hopefully), this indicates a rallying cry for a change of weather: it's going to rain. My guess is that they're lucky with the coincidence or that "they know in advance" that the soil is going to get wet and worms will come out... Smart or lucky, it seems to work for about 95 per cent of predictions.


Health-wise: https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2019-08-28/is-5g-safe-dr-karl-radiation-explainer/11416070

huawei to the rescue?...

As Western powers continue to grapple with if or how to fit Huawei's 5G networks into their societies, reports have revealed the Chinese telecom giant is already well into researching 6G mobile technology.

Key points: 
  • 6G is predicted to fundamentally alter people's relationship to technology
  • Huawei is not the only company researching 6G, which is estimated to roll out in the 2030s
  • But Huawei has been banned from 5G networks in Australia, New Zealand and the US


6G, a term used for the globe's "sixth-generation mobile" wireless internet network, will be the successor to the world's still-forthcoming mobile network, 5G. 

Presently, that network is slowly being rolled out in cities around the globe, and in Australia, access to the service has been slow, with coverage so far being provided by just Telstra and Optus.

However, this week, tech website The Logic reported that Huawei was the latest company to join a small list of companies and universities commencing 6G's research and development.

Huawei's research will happen at the company's Canadian lab, and Song Zhang, Huawei Canada's vice-president of research strategy and partnerships, told Logic the company was "in talks with Canadian university researchers" about the network's development.

Yang Chaobin, the president of Huawei's 5G products, said that 6G would not be viable until 2030.

But with 5G technology is still in its infancy — and with many telecommunications company still determining how and where to implement 5G infrastructure — is the move to 6G research jumping the gun?


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Hopefully the 6G network would not impede on our scientific observations, but who knows... We know the spectrum of electromagnetic waves is weird as we can heat up our water in a "microwave oven" and we know the sun heats up CO2 in the atmosphere with specific wavebands of infrared. With our added CO2 from burning fossil fuels, we create global warming...

the furphy of nosebleed with 5G...

A Wifi radiation expert claims levels of radiation in parts of Byron Bay are “off the charts.”

Parents concerned about the possible impacts of 5G technology joined expert Kelly Abeleven, as she conducted tests in tourist hotspots this morning.

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By the end of this year, a new super-fast mobile network will be operating in all major capital cities and regional areas in Australia.

5G represents the fifth generation of mobile network technology, and it promises to be as much of a leap forward as 4G mobile broadband was back in 2011.

As the rollout proceeds, however, it's become a focal point for longstanding concerns about the health effects of electromagnetic radiation.

"I'm very concerned about 5G. I already get headaches from 4G and wifi," Oliver in Mackay wrote in to Hack.

A Sydney resident told the ABC recently: "We don't want it here. It causes us great anxiety that this thing is going to be running 24-7."


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We shall put a stop to this crap now. With radios,TVs, telephones, microwaves and radars, the level of these "artificial" radiations in the environment is very small compared to the general natural radiations which encompass radon, cosmic radiations, thoron, gamma "rays" and our own internal radiation. You have also far more to fear about infrared that can burn your skin (sunburn) and ultraviolet radiation that can induce cancers (melanoma). 

Now a bit more information in regard to the spectrum of radiation used for transmission. As noted at top, the 5G network spectrum is too close to some spectrum used for the analysis of weather prediction. This is a problem. Spectrums for transmissions are allocated by governments to agencies, private and public such as defence. Our ability to "manipulate" radiations to transmit information is quite phenomenal though. And this is not without its problem such as "interferences", deliberate or not, or "capture" in order to listen in. As well some spectrum of radiation are not efficient at transporting info. The atmosphere may not be "transparent" to some radiation frequencies. This to some extend saves our skin. We all (we all should) know about the ozone layer and of its importance in stopping a lot of ultraviolet (UV) rays (light) in the atmosphere. A lot of cosmic radiation is also prevented to reach us because of the atmospheric "opacity"... 


Radar microwaves are quite powerful, but still way below the threshold of doing bio-damage. On Mythbusters, the mob tried to cook a turkey in proximity of a powerful radar at full blast and it "did not work"... They actually did not go into the details but I can guess the "radio-waves" coming from the radar are on a different frequency than that of your kitchen microwave which has a very specific frequency that make water molecule vibrate — thus heat up. This is why the microwave unit is a cage (with a specific grid and size) from which the radio-waves cannot escape. Leave a spoon in your soup bowl in the microwave and it will have a massive fit. 


In electronic warfare, the trick is to jam radio transmission of your opponent — or listen in, but encryption and change of frequency may impede your ability to capture the info, so the general jamming of radio-waves (including GPS) is used. You will get complaints from various people whose phones or car keys won't work when the US navy or Chinese navy is in town, often because they use jamming of certain frequencies. None of these radiation from telephone towers, jamming or car keys will induce diseases or illness. CLOSE specific Radiation can sometimes be beneficial.

... Radiation is energy and research findings provide at least some information concerning how specific types may influence biological tissue, including that of the brain. In some cases the effect may be therapeutic. For example, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique used to induce a short-term interruption of normal activity in a relatively restricted area of the brain by rapidly changing a strong magnetic field near the area of interest. Mark George provided a nice account of TMS in the September 2003 issue of Scientific American. In it he described how head-mounted wire coils can deliver powerful yet evanescent magnetic pulses directly into focal brain regions to painlessly modulate neural activity by inducing minute electric currents. Clinically, TMS may be helpful in alleviating certain symptoms, including those of depression.

Researchers typically differentiate between the effects of ionizing radiation (such as far-ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray) and nonionizing radiation (including visible light, microwave and radio). The ionizing variety may be undesirable because it can cause DNA damage and mutations, thus we should all limit our exposure to its sources--radioactive materials and solar radiation among them. However, given modern technology, nonionizing radiation from power lines, personal wireless devices, cell phone towers and other sources is practically unavoidable. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) surround home appliances as well as high-voltage electrical transmission lines and transformers.

Evidence of health effects from EMF, including their influence on the brain, is inconclusive, and the probability that EMF exposure is a genuine health hazard is currently small. Nevertheless, exposure to high levels of nonionizing energy, such as at radio wave frequencies, can damage the structure and function of the nervous system. For example, microwave frequencies below 3,000 megahertz can penetrate the outer layers of the skin, be absorbed in the underlying tissues, and result in all of the known biological effects of heating, including burns, cataracts, and possibly death. Indeed, government regulators set most exposure limits to ensure that the amount of tissue heated by the absorption of energy is not in excess of what the body can take.


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the 5G transmission is safe and won't make your nose bleed, but it will interfere with the other transmissions used for weather forecasting. 







Satellites see hurricane winds despite military signal tweaks...

BY Paul Voosen

Science  14 Jun 2019:

Vol. 364, Issue 6445, pp. 1019

DOI: 10.1126/science.364.6445.1019


A mission to probe winds deep inside hurricanes, where most satellites cannot see and few aircraft venture, is showing signs of success despite an unexpected obstacle linked to tensions in the Middle East.

A constellation of eight microsatellites has harvested data that—if folded into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) weather models—could have sharpened forecasts of several recent hurricanes, including Michael, a category-5 storm that hit Florida last year. “We're finally getting stuff that really looks useful,” says Frank Marks, who leads hurricane researchers exploring the data at NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) in Miami, Florida. But the progress was hard-won for scientists on NASA's $157 million Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), who discussed early results at a meeting last week, just as another Atlantic hurricane season kicked off.

With its flotilla of satellites crisscrossing the tropical oceans, CYGNSS can see through the thick clouds of cyclones. The satellites collect radio signals beamed from standard GPS beacons after they bounce off the ocean's surface. The reflections are influenced by sea's roughness, which depends on wind speed. But a month after launch in December 2016, the team noticed the GPS signals were wavering. “We assumed they are constant,” says Christopher Ruf, CYGNSS's principal investigator and an atmospheric scientist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. “And they're not.”

The U.S. military runs the GPS system, and in January 2017, it began to boost the radio power on 10 of its GPS satellites as they passed over a broad region centered on northern Syria. The power boosts, which can thwart jamming, have recurred without warning, each lasting several hours. “It's an opaque situation, obviously, because it's a classified military situation,” Ruf says. The swings don't interfere with other scientific uses of GPS. But they threw off the constellation's measurements of high winds by 5 meters a second or more—the difference between a category-2 and category-3 hurricane.

After 2 years of work, the CYGNSS team has compensated by reprogramming its satellites on the fly. The satellites carry large antennas to catch reflected GPS signals, but they also have small antennas that receive direct GPS signals, for tracking time and location. The team repurposed the small antennas to measure the signal strength of the GPS satellites, making it possible to correct the wind speed measures. “It works,” Ruf says. “We've been testing it for a number of months.”

Even before that fix, the wind data were good enough to improve some hurricane forecasts, says Bachir Annane, an atmospheric scientist at AOML. In the case of Michael, NOAA's forecast models failed, Annane says: They predicted it would track too far west, close to Alabama rather than Florida, and underestimated its ferocious winds. When he reran the models with CYGNSS winds, Annane found that the storm's forecasted early track and its intensity stayed closer to reality. The wind data would have improved track forecasts for two other recent hurricanes, Harvey and Irma, as well, he says.

The satellites are also giving scientists a view of the winds underlying the Madden-Julian oscillation, a large cluster of storms that periodically forms in the Indian Ocean and marches around the equator, influencing global weather (Science, 2 October 2015, p. 22). “Seeing under the rain was a big draw for us,” says Eric Maloney, an atmospheric scientist at Colorado State University (CSU) in Fort Collins, because scientists have long debated what fuels the storms. Last week at the CYGNSS meeting, Bohar Singh, an atmospheric scientist who works with Maloney at CSU, described evidence from CYGNSS that persistent winds boost ocean evaporation under a 3000-kilometer-wide set of rainstorms, sustaining them. That finding could help scientists forecast how the storm belt will change in a warmer climate, Maloney says.

After a few tweaks, CYGNSS can now look at land, too. Its antennas are capturing signs of soil moisture, says Clara Chew, a remote sensing hydrologist at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Although not as capable as a single dedicated satellite, CYGNSS's multiple satellites make more frequent measurements, which could help it monitor flood risks and track how different soils retain rain. “You can start to quantify how long the soil remembers,” Chew says.

NOAA scientists hope the new GPS fix will unleash the microsatellites' full potential for looking into storms, perhaps revealing new insights into why some hurricanes suddenly intensify. NOAA isn't likely to start using the CYGNSS data in its routine forecasts, Marks says. The satellites don't belong to the weather agency, and they are unlikely to last more than 7 years before failing. But he thinks their success against the odds could help persuade NOAA to launch its own wind-monitoring constellation.





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